Zevachim 75 -
1) "KODSHIM" THAT BECAME MIXED
(a) (Mishnah): If Kodshim became mixed with Kodshim, Min b'Mino (we offer each (Tosfos - Stam, which is) l'Shem its owner...)
(b) Question: But Semichah cannot be done (it is Me'ilah to support oneself on a Korban, it is permitted only when it is a Mitzvah, i.e. one's own Korban - here, no one knows which Korban is his)!
(c) Answer (Rav Yosef): The Mishnah discusses Korbanos of women (women never do Semichah).
(d) Inference: This implies that Korbanos of men would not be offered (because Semichah is required, but it cannot be done)!
(e) Question (Abaye - Beraisa): If an individual's Korban was mixed with an individual's Korban, or a Korban Tzibur was mixed with a Korban Tzibur, or an individual's Korban was mixed with a Korban Tzibur, four Matanos of blood are made from each (Rebbi Kesav Yad - four Matanos in all);
1. If one Matanah was done from each, each Korban is Kosher.
2. If four Matanos were done from all of them, they are Kesherim (this will be explained).
3. This applies when they became mixed while they were alive - if they became mixed after they were slaughtered, he should do four Matanos from all of them, if he did one Matanah from each, each is Kosher.
4. Rebbi says, this depends - if the Matanah is big enough to contain (a Shi'ur of) blood for each animal, it is Kosher; if not, it is Pasul.
5. Summation of question: Presumably, the case of (a Korban of) an individual resembles that of a Tzibur, i.e. it is of men (and we offer them)!
6. Counter-question (Rava): Surely, the text of the Beraisa is mistaken! It says 'This is if they became mixed while they were alive, not if it was after slaughter' - surely, this makes no difference!
(f) Answer (to question and counter-question - Rava): The Beraisa should say 'This is if they became mixed after slaughter in a way similar to becoming mixed while alive, i.e. the buckets (each with the blood of one Korban) became mixed - but it the bloods became mixed together, he does four Matanos for all of them;
(g) Rebbi says, this depends - if the Matanah has enough blood for each, it is Kosher; if not, it is Pasul.
(h) Question: But Rebbi holds that there is no Shi'ur (required amount)!
1. (Beraisa - Rebbi): R. Eliezer holds that Haza'ah (with Mei Chatas) of any amount is Metaher, there is no Shi'ur!
2. It is Kosher even if half the water was Kosher and half Pasul.
(i) Answer #1: Rebbi explains R. Eliezer's opinion, Rebbi disagrees.
(j) Answer #2: The law of Matanos of blood is unlike that of Haza'ah of Mei Chatas.
2) "KODSHIM" MIXED WITH A "BECHOR"
(a) (Mishnah): If they became mixed with Bechor or Ma'aser (Behemah)...
(b) Question #1 (Rami bar Chama): According to Beis Shamai, a Bechor (even with a Mum) may not be eaten by a Nidah - what is the law regarding Temuras Bechor?
(c) Question #2 (Rami bar Chama): A Bechor may not be redeemed - what is the law regarding Temuras Bechor?
(d) Question #3 (Rami bar Chama): One may not weigh meat of a (blemished) Bechor to sell it - what is the law regarding Temuras Bechor?
(e) Answer (Rava - Beraisa): Temurah applies to Bechor and Ma'aser (even) after they became blemished, the law of the Temurah is like their law.
(f) Question (Rami bar Chama): If a Kohen was Makdish a (blemished) Bechor to Bedek ha'Bayis, may we weigh the meat (to determine how much a buyer should pay to redeem it)?
1. Since Hekdesh benefits from this, it is permitted;
2. Or, we are more concerned for disgrace to Kodshim, it is forbidden!
(g) Answer #1 (R. Yosi bar Zvida - Mishnah): If they became mixed with Bechor or Ma'aser, they are Ro'im, all are eaten like Bechor or Ma'aser;
1. This teaches that they may not be sold by weight (even though the redemption money would be used for substitute Korbanos)!
(h) Rejection (Rav Huna and R. Chizkiyah (Talmidim of R. Yirmeyah)): We cannot learn from there - there, it is forbidden to sell an animal by weight (lest it is a Bechor) in order that we will receive more money for *other* Zevachim, which will be used for a Korban;
1. Here, although the money will be for (Bedek ha'Bayis,) a different Kedushah than Bechor, the very animal we disgrace will bring a profit to Hekdesh!
(i) Objection (R. Yosi bar Avin): Obviously, we may not weigh the meat!
1. If a Bechor Ba'al Mum (Tosfos - from birth) was Hukdash to Bedek ha'Bayis, would we allow a person to redeem it (to allow him to work with it and shear it) in order that Hekdesh will receive more money?!
(j) Rejection: That is not comparable - such a redemption is forbidden mid'Oraisa, but weighing the meat is only mid'Rabanan! (Rashi; Tosfos - both are forbidden mid'Oraisa (but redemption is explicitly forbidden, and weighing is only forbidden on account of Svara (reasoning), the Svara that Hekdesh should receive more money is stronger - Shitah Mekubetzes)).
(k) Answer #2 (R. Ami): The Kohen who received the Bechor did not receive full ownership, he did not have the right to sell it by weight - he cannot give to Hekdesh more ownership than he had!
3) WHICH "KODSHIM" CAN BECOME MIXED?
(a) (Mishnah): It is possible for any two kinds of Zevachim to become mixed together, except for Chatas and Asham.
(b) Question: They cannot become mixed, because Asham is always a male, Chatas is always a female - also Olah is always a male, it cannot become mixed with Chatas!
(c) Answer: The Chatas of a Nasi is a male goat, it can become mixed with Olah;
1. A Nasi's goat is distinguishable from an Asham, which is always a sheep, which has wool.
(d) Question: Korban Pesach must be a kid in its first year, it cannot become mixed with Asham, a second year animal!
(e) Answer #1: Asham Nazir and Asham Metzora are Kesherim in the first year.
(f) Answer #2: Sometimes an animal in (i.e. towards the end of) its first year cannot be distinguished from an animal in (the beginning of) its second year.
4) CAUSING "KODSHIM" TO BE WASTED
(a) (Mishnah - R. Shimon): If an Asham became mixed with a Shelamim, both are slaughtered in the north, both are eaten with all the stringencies (of Asham, i.e. it is eaten for only one day, only by male Kohanim in the Azarah);
(b) Chachamim say, we do not cause Kodshim to be (possibly) wasted. (If we limit the time (Rashi - or place) or people permitted to eat it (more stringently than the Torah did), perhaps it will not be eaten in time, some will become Nosar! Rather, we wait for the animals to become blemished, redeem them, and use the money to buy another Asham and Shelamim, the Shelamim may be eaten for two days, by all Yisraelim, anywhere in Yerushalayim).
(c) If pieces of Kodshei Kodoshim became mixed with pieces of Kodshim Kalim, or if Kodshim (even Kalim) that may be eaten only one day became mixed with Kodshim permitted for two days and the night in between, they are eaten like the most stringent element of the mixture.
(d) (A reciter of Beraisos): One may not buy Terumah with Demei (money paid for produce of) Shemitah, for this limits the time to eat it. (E.g. if Shemitah apples were sold, then when apples are no longer available to Chayos in the field, Bi'ur must be done with the (sold apples and the last) food bought with the money, i.e. one must remove (all except three meals worth of) it from his house.)
(e) Suggestion (Rabanan): This is unlike R. Shimon, who permits causing Kodshim (or Terumah) to become Pesulim (forbidden to eat)!
(f) Rejection (Rava): No, even R. Shimon could agree to this - he only permits b'Diavad (if Kodshim already became mixed; Shitah Mekubetzes' text explicitly says this), but not to cause this l'Chatchilah.