Menachos 21 - ITEMS THAT NEED NOT BE SALTED
1) ITEMS THAT NEED NOT BE SALTED
(a) Question: (Before we said that 'Minchah' excludes wood and blood, now we deleted 'wood' from the Beraisa) - what does 'Minchah' exclude?
1. We cannot say that it excludes only blood - "Me'Al Minchasecha" excludes blood!
(b) Answer: It excludes Nesachim - the Beraisa should say 'Nesachim' in place of 'wood'.
1. (Beraisa): Wine, blood, wood and Ketores need not be salted.
2. Question: Who is the Tana of the Beraisa?
i. It cannot be Rebbi - he requires salting wood!
ii. It cannot be Chachamim - they require salting Ketores!
3. Answer: It is the following Tana:
i. (Beraisa - R. Yochanan ben Brokah): The Prat (Minchah) is Mekabel Tum'ah and it is burned on the fire of the outer Mizbe'ach - all such things are salted;
ii. This excludes wood, which is not Mekabel Tum'ah, and blood and wine, which do not go on the fire, and Ketores, which goes on the inner Mizbe'ach.
2) SALTED, COOKED AND CONGEALED BLOOD
(a) Inference: A verse is needed to exclude blood, otherwise we would say that it must be salted.
(b) Question: Salted blood is not considered blood (salting is like cooking)!
1. (Ze'iri): One is not liable for eating cooked blood.
2. (Rav Yehudah citing Ze'iri): One is not liable for eating salted blood.
3. (Rav Yehudah): If limbs were roasted before they were offered, he did not fulfill "Re'ach Nicho'ach".
(c) Answer: One might have thought that only a small amount of salt is put on (this is not like cooking) - the verse teaches that it is not salted at all.
(d) (Ze'iri): One is not liable for eating cooked blood.
(e) Question (Abaye of Rava - Mishnah): If one cooked blood until it hardened and ate it, or melted Chelev and drank it, he is liable.
(f) Answer: One is not liable for eating blood (Chulin or Kodesh) that congealed through cooking on a fire, for it cannot revert to blood (Rashi - by adding water; Shitah - this means, such blood (of Korbanos) is no longer Kosher for Zerikah);
1. One is liable for eating blood that congealed in the sun, for it can revert to blood.
(g) Question: The following dialogue shows that also blood that congealed in the sun is Nidcheh (loses the status of blood, it is Pasul for Zerikah!)
1. Question (Rav Mari): If one ate congealed blood, what is the law?
2. Answer (R. Yochanan): Once it congealed, it is Nidcheh (therefore, he is exempt.)
(h) Rava was silent.
(i) Suggestion (Abaye): Perhaps one is liable for congealed blood of outer Chata'os (the reason will be explained), one is exempt for inner Chata'os!
(j) Rava: You reminded me of Rav Chisda's teaching.
1. (Rav Chisda): If blood of an outer Chatas congealed, one who eats it is liable;
i. It says "V'Lakach...v'Nosan" (Vayikra 4:30) - since congealed blood can be taken and put (on the Keren), it is still considered blood.
2. If blood of an inner Chatas congealed, one who eats it is exempt;
i. It says "V'Toval...v'Hizah" - since one cannot immerse (a finger) in or sprinkle congealed blood, it is not considered blood.
(k) (Rava himself): One is liable even for congealed blood of an inner Chatas, since such blood of outer Chata'os is considered blood.
(l) (Rav Papa): We learn from this that one is liable for congealed blood of a donkey, since such blood of outer Chata'os is considered blood (had we not learned from outer Chata'os, we would have thought that one is exempt for (Shitah - congealed; Rashi - even liquid) blood of a donkey.)
(m) (Rav Gidal citing Ze'iri): Blood is a Chatzizah, whether it is wet or dry.
(n) Question (Mishnah): The following are a Chatzizah if they are dry, not if they are wet - blood, ink, honey, and milk.
(o) Answer: They are a Chatzizah when they are Sarich (they have started to dry), they are not a Chatzizah before they are Sarich.
3) THE TYPE AND AMOUNT OF SALT USED
(a) Question: What do we learn from "Timlach"?
(b) Answer (Beraisa) Suggestion: "Ba'Melach" - perhaps Tevonehu (this will be explained)!
1. Rejection: "Timlach"
2. Suggestion: Perhaps one may put on brine!
3. Rejection: "Ba'Melach".
(c) "V'Lo Sashbis Melach" - bring salt that does not cease, i.e. Sedom salt (it is deposited by the sea constantly, but man-made salt is not made on Shabbos.)
(d) Question: What is the source to bring man-made salt if Sedom salt is not available?
(e) Answer: "Takriv" - offer any kind of salt, from anywhere (even Chutz la'Aretz), even on Shabbos, even when offering b'Tum'ah.
1. Question: What does Tevonehu mean?
2. Answer #1 (Rabah bar Ula): Yisbonenu (put a great amount), like Teven (straw) in mud.
3. Objection (Abaye): If so, the Beraisa should have said Yisbonenu!
4. Answer #2 (Abaye): One must make like a Binyan (building of salt.).
5. Objection (Rava): If so, it should have said "Yivnenu"!
6. Answer #3 (Rava): One must Yevonenu (Shitah Mekubetzes; Ya'avetz - Tevinehu.)
i. Question: What does this mean?
ii. Version #1 - our text - Answer (Rav Ashi): One might have thought that any amount enough to give Ta'am (taste) suffices, just like a bit of understanding gives Ta'am (sound reason) to people - "Timlach" teaches that this is not so;
iii. Rather, one puts (much) salt on each side of the limb and offers it.
iv. (Abaye): The same is required for salting meat to be cooked in a pot (for all the blood must come out.)
v. Version #2 - R. Gershom - Answer (Rav Ashi): One might have thought that one must put in much salt, to give Ta'am, just like (much) understanding gives Ta'am to people - "Timlach" teaches that this is not so;
vi. Rather, one puts (a little) salt on each side of the limb and offers it.
vii. (Abaye): The same suffices for salting meat to be roasted (since roasting makes the blood exude.)
4) THE "KEDUSHAH" OF THE SALT
(a) (Beraisa): Me'ilah applies to salt on limbs, not to salt (ready to be put on Korbanos, stored) on the ramp and the top of the Mizbe'ach.
(b) (Rav Masnah): The Tana learns learn "V'Hishilchu ha'Kohanim Aleihem Melach v'He'elu *Osam* Olah" (also the salt on the limbs is called 'Olah'.)
(c) (Mishnah): Beis Din (of Kohanim) stipulated about the Kedushah of seven things:
1. Kohanim will be permitted to benefit from wood and salt (of Hekdesh)...
(d) (Shmuel): They may use salt for their Korbanos, not for their eating.
(e) We are thinking that this refers to *salting* their Korbanos and eating Kodshim.
(f) Question: It is unreasonable that Hekdesh salt may be used to salt hides of Korbanos (that become Chulin and Kohanim receive them) but not to eat Korbanos!
1. (Beraisa): Salt was stored in three places - in the salt chamber, on the ramp, and on top of the Mizbe'ach.
2. Hides of Korbanos were salted in (Rambam; Tosfos - using salt of) the salt chamber, limbs were salted on the ramp;
3. The following were salted on top of the Mizbe'ach (with Hekdesh salt) -- Kometz, Levonah, Ketores, Minchas Kohanim, Minchas Chavitim, and Olas ha'Of.
(g) Answer #1: Shmuel refers to *eating* the Korbanos, and eating *Chulin*.
(h) Question: Obviously, they may not eat Chulin with salt of the Mikdash - it is forbidden (Rashi; Shitah Mekubetzes - not normal) to eat Chulin b'Azarah, even without salt!
(i) Answer: "Yochlu" - Chulin and Terumah may be eaten with Kodshim, in order that Kodshim will be eaten when the person is already satiated;
1. Even so, they may not eat Chulin with Hekdesh salt.
(j) Support (for Answer (l) - Ravina): Surely, Shmuel did not refer to salting their Korbanos, for this would not require a stipulation of Beis Din!
1. Korbanos of Yisraelim are salted with Hekdesh salt, Kohanim should be no worse!
2. (Beraisa) Suggestion: Perhaps a Yisrael who vowed to bring a Minchah must bring his own salt, just like he must bring his own Levonah!
i. This is logical - the Torah commands to put salt on a Minchah, also to put Levonah on a Minchah;
ii. Just like he must bring his own Levonah, we should say that he must bring his own salt!
3. Counter-suggestion: Perhaps we should learn from wood instead!
i. The Torah requires wood for a Minchah, and also salt - just like the Tzibur supplies the wood, it should also supply the salt!
4. Decision: It is more reasonable to learn from wood, which applies to all Korbanos, and not from Levonah, which only applies to Menachos!
5. Question: Perhaps we should rather learn from Levonah, for it is brought in the same Kli as the Minchah, and not from wood, which is not brought in the same Kli!
6. Conclusion: It says "Bris Melach Olam" (R. Tam - "Melach Bris"), and (regarding Lechem ha'Panim) "Me'Es Benei Yisrael Bris Olam";
i. Just like the Tzibur supplies Lechem ha'Panim, it supplies salt.
(k) Answer #2 (Rav Mordechai): Indeed, Shmuel refers to salting their Korbanos and eating Kodshim - the Mishnah is like Ben Buchri.
1. (Mishnah - R. Yehudah citing Ben Buchri): If a Kohen is Shokel (gives a half-Shekel along with Benei Yisrael, to buy Korbanos Tzibur), he does not transgress;
2. R. Yochanan ben Zakai: Rather, a Kohen that does not Shokel transgresses!
3. Kohanim (incorrectly) expound the following, to their (monetary) advantage:
i. "V'Chol Minchas Kohen Kalil Tihyeh Lo Se'achel"- if Kohanim would Shokel, they would be (joint) owners of (all Korbanos Tzibur, including) the Omer, Lechem ha'Panim and Shtei ha'Lechem, they could not be eaten!
4. Question: According to Ben Buchri, a Kohen that is Shokel transgresses, for the Tzibur will (improperly) buy Korbanos using his half-Shekel, it is Chulin b'Azarah!
5. Answer: The Kohen gives his half-Shekel to the Tzibur, then it is given to Hekdesh.
6. Culmination of answer (p): One might have thought, the Hekdesh salt is only for Korbanos of Yisrael, for they pay for the salt - the Mishnah teaches, this is not so.