Menachos 32 - THE BREAK BETWEEN THE
1) THE BREAK BETWEEN THE "PARSHIYOS" IN A "MEZUZAH"
(a) Question (Beraisa - R. Shimon ben Elazar): R. Meir would write Mezuzos on Duchsustus (parchment made from the inner layer of hide), the shape of the writing was (long and thin), like a column;
1. He left a space above and below, and made the Parshiyos open.
2. R. Shimon ben Elazar: Why did you make them open (they are closed in the Torah)!
3. R. Meir: I made them open because they are not adjacent in the Torah.
4. (R. Chananel citing Rav): The Halachah follows R. Shimon ben Elazar.
5. Summation of question - suggestion: The Halachah follows him (even) regarding open Parshiyos. (Rav Huna was a Talmid of Rav - surely, he conducted like Rav!)
(b) Answer: No, Rav ruled like R. Shimon ben Elazar (only) regarding the spaces above and below.
(c) Question: How much space must be left?
(d) Answer (Rav Menasiya bar Yakov): He must leave the size of the clamp (to hold down the corners of the parchment).
(e) Abaye (to Rav Yosef): Don't you agree that Rav did not rule like R. Shimon regarding open Parshiyos?!
1. Rav says that the custom prevails, and the custom is to make the Parshiyos closed!
2. (Rabah citing Rav): If Eliyahu will come and tell us that we may use a Min'al (a soft shoe) for Chalitzah, we will heed him; if he will tell us that we may not use a Sandal (a hard shoe), we will not heed him, for the custom is to use a Sandal;
3. (Rav Yosef citing Rav): If Eliyahu will tell us that we may not use a Min'al, we will heed him; if he will tell us that we may not use a Sandal (a hard shoe), we will not heed him, for the custom is to use a Sandal;
4. Question: What is the difference between these versions?
5. Answer: Rav Yosef holds that (now,) a Min'al may be used l'Chatchilah (until (and if) Eliyahu forbids this), Rabah holds that (now) it may not be used l'Chatchilah (until Eliyahu will permit it).
6. Conclusion: (According to both versions, Eliyahu cannot abolish the custom to use a Sandal -) this proves that Rav holds that that the custom prevails.
(f) (Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): L'Chatchilah, the Parshiyos should be made closed - R. Shimon ben Elazar teaches that even open Parshiyos are Kosher.
(g) Support (Beraisa): If (parchments of) a Sefer Torah or Tefilin became worn, they may not be used for a Mezuzah, for we do not demote something to a lower Kedushah.
1. Inference: If it was permitted to demote to a lower Kedushah, they could be used for a Mezuzah, even though the (first) Parshah (in a Mezuzah, Shma Yisrael) is closed!
(h) Rejection: (In any case, we could not use both Parshiyos, for the break between them is closed;)
1. Because we do not demote to a lower Kedushah, even one Parshah may not be used (even if he would attach it to the other Parshah making an open break between them.)
2. (This is like the second explanation of Tosfos (Rashba explains it more fully. Alternatively, we thought that the Beraisa discusses using an entire Parshah (it would be permitted, if not for demoting the Kedushah), even though each of them is closed - we reject the support, perhaps the Beraisa discusses using one line of a Parshah.)
2) USING PARCHMENTS OF A "SEFER TORAH" OR "TEFILIN" FOR A "MEZUZAH"
(a) Question: May we really infer that if it was permitted to demote Kedushah, they could be used for a Mezuzah?!
1. (Beraisa): A tradition from Moshe from Sinai teaches that Tefilin are written on Klaf (parchment made from the outer layer of hide), Mezuzos are written on Duchsustus.
2. On Klaf, we write on the inner side (that faced the animal's flesh), on Duchsustus, we write on the outer side (that faced the hair).
(b) Answer: That is l'Chatchilah (b'Diavad, a Mezuzah on Klaf is Kosher).
(c) Question (Beraisa): If one deviated, it is Pasul.
(d) Answer: That refers only to writing Tefilin on Duchsustus (but Mezuzah on Klaf is Kosher.)
(e) Question (Beraisa): If one deviated in either of these, it is Pasul.
(f) Answer #1: This refers to writing Tefilin on the wrong side of either parchment, i.e. on the outer side of Klaf or on the inner side of Duchsustus. (Neither side of Duchsustus may be used - the previous Beraisa disqualified the outer side, one might have thought that Tefilin are Kosher on the inner side, like we find regarding Klaf.)
(g) Answer #2: Tana'im argue about writing Tefilin or Mezuzos on the wrong kind of parchment.
1. (Beraisa): If one deviated (wrote on the wrong kind of parchment) in either of these (Tefilin or Mezuzos), it is Pasul;
2. R. Acha is Machshir.
(h) Question: May we really infer that if it was permitted to demote Kedushah, parchments of a Sefer Torah or Tefilin could be used for a Mezuzah?!
1. Mezuzah requires Sirtut (lines scratched in the parchment to help the scribe write straight - Tefilin (Tosfos - and Sifrei Torah) do not require Sirtut, therefore, normally, they do not have Sirtut)!
2. (Rav Minyomi bar Chilkiyah citing Rav): A Mezuzah without Sirtut is Pasul.
3. (Rav Minyamin bar Chilkiyah): A tradition from Sinai requires Sirtut in a Mezuzah.
(i) Answer: Tana'im argue whether or not a Mezuzah requires Sirtut.
1. (Beraisa - R. Yirmeyah): Tefilin and Mezuzos may be written by memory (without written parchments in front of him), they do not require Sirtut.
(j) The Halachah is, Tefilin does not require Sirtut but Mezuzah does; both may be written by memory.
(k) Question: What is the reason (for the second law)?
(l) Answer: People know the Parshiyos well (they will not err).
3) SITTING ON A BED ON WHICH A "SEFER TORAH" RESTS
(a) (Rav Chelbo): I once saw that Rav Huna wanted to sit on a bed on which a Sefer Torah was resting - he stood up a barrel and put the Sefer Torah on it, then sat on the bed.
1. He holds that it is forbidden to sit on a bed on which a Sefer Torah rests, he argues with Rabah bar bar Chanah.
2. (Rabah bar bar Chanah): It is permitted to sit on a bed on which a Sefer Torah rests;
i. Perhaps you will ask from the episode in which R. Elazar realized that he was sitting on a bed on which a Sefer Torah rests - he sat on the floor and was grieved like one bitten by a snake!
ii. That is wrong -- the case was, he realized that the Sefer Torah was on the floor!
(b) (Rav Yehudah): If a Sefer Torah was written like an Igeres (letter - i.e., he was not precise concerning extra or missing letters; Rashi - alternatively, without Sirtut), it is Pasul.
(c) Question: What is the reason?
(d) Answer: We learn a Gezerah Shavah "Kesivah-Kesivah" from Sefer (Torah; alternatively, from Sefer Kerisus (Get); Tosfos - from Megilas Sotah).
4) WHERE TO PUT THE "MEZUZAH"
(a) (Rav Yehudah): If one hung a Mezuzah from a stick, it is Pasul.
(b) Question: What is the reason?
(c) Answer: It must be '*Bi*'Sh'arecha' (*on* your gate),
(d) Support (Beraisa): If one hung a Mezuzah from a stick or affixed it in back of the door, this is dangerous (Tosfos - one might bang his head on it; Rashi - he is not guarded from Mazikim, because) he does not fulfill the Mitzvah.
1. The household of Melech Munvaz would take Mezuzos with them when they traveled; they would hang a Mezuzah in the doorway of the inn (even though they were exempt) as a remembrance of the Mitzvah.
(e) (Rav Yehudah): The Mezuzah should be affixed in the hollow of the entrance.
(f) Objection: This is obvious, it says "Uvi'Sh'arecha'"!
(g) Answer: Rava taught, the Mezuzah should be affixed in the Tefach closest to Reshus ha'Rabim;
1. One might have thought, the further from the house the better, it should be entirely outside the entranceway - Rav Yehudah teaches, this is not so.