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05-25-2011
Title:
Menachos 67 - KNEADING OF

Message:
1) KNEADING OF "HEKDESH"

(a) (Rava): Kneading of Hekdesh exempts (from Chalah):
1. (Mishnah): If Leah was Makdish dough and redeemed it before it was kneaded (i.e. it was still flour, when she later kneads it), Chalah must be taken;
2. If she was Makdish a kneaded dough and redeemed it, Chalah must be taken;
3. If she was Makdish it before it was kneaded and the Gizbar (treasurer of Hekdesh) kneaded it, it is exempt from Chalah.
(b) Question (Rava): Does kneading of a Nochri exempt?
1. (Mishnah): If a Nochri kneaded a dough and later converted, it is exempt from Chalah; if it was kneaded after he converted, or if we are in doubt, Chalah must be taken.
2. Possibility #1: There is no dissenting opinion - even R. Meir and R. Yehudah, who Mechayev Miru'ach of a Nochri (regarding Ma'aser), exempt (from Chalah) a dough kneaded by a Nochri;
3. Regarding Ma'aser it says Degancha twice (each is expounded Digunecha, i.e. your Miru'ach, not of a Nochri) - two exclusions for the same matter always come to include it;
4. Regarding Chalah it says "Arisoseichem" twice:
i. Version #1 (our text): One is expounded like 'Isaschem", Chalah applies to the Shi'ur of 'your dough' (in the Midbar, everyone received an Omer (the volume of 43 and a fifth eggs) of Man each day);
ii. Version #2 (Tosfos): One excludes the dough of Hekdesh; (end of Version #2)
iii. The other excludes the dough of a Nochri.
5. Possibility #2: The Mishnah is like R. Yosi and R. Shimon, who exempt Miru'ach of a Nochri, but R. Meir and R. Yehudah, who Mechayev Miru'ach Nochri, learn a Gezerah Shavah "Reishis-Reishis" from Ma'aser to Mechayev a dough kneaded by a Nochri.
(c) Rava: May Hash-m show me the answer in a dream (I will never be able to resolve my question!)
(d) Answer (Rava, at a later time): Possibility #2 is correct, whoever is Mechayev Miru'ach of a Nochri is Mechayev kneading of a Nochri.
(e) Question #1 (Rav Papa - Beraisa): (When Peter Chamor (a firstborn donkey) is born, one should give a Seh to a Kohen to redeem it; if not, it must be beheaded, it is forbidden to benefit from it.) If a Nochri designated Peter Chamor (Tosfos -the Chamor itself; Rashi - a Seh to redeem it) or Chalah, we inform him that he is exempt, Zarim may eat the Chalah, the donkey (Rashi - Seh) may be sheared and worked with.
1. Inference: If he designated Terumah, it is forbidden.
2. Summation of question: The Tana holds that Miru'ach of a Nochri is Mechayev, yet kneading of Nochri exempts!
(f) Question #2 (Ravina - Beraisa): If a Nochri took Chalah in Eretz Yisrael or Terumah in Chutz la'Aretz, we inform him that he is exempt, Zarim may eat the Chalah, the Terumah is not Medame'a (i.e. if it becomes mixed with a larger amount of Chulin, the mixture is permitted.)
1. Inference: His Terumah in Eretz Yisrael is forbidden and Medame'a!
2. Summation of question: The Tana holds that Miru'ach of a Nochri is Mechayev, yet kneading of Nochri exempts!
(g) Answer to both questions: Miru'ach of a Nochri is exempt mid'Oraisa, it is liable mid'Rabanan - this is a decree on account of rich people (who do not want to give Ma'aser, lest they give their produce to a Nochri to do Miru'ach to exempt themselves; alternatively, if people know that produce bought from a Nochri merchant (who did Miru'ach himself) is exempt, they might think that produce bought from a Yisrael merchant is exempt.)
67b---------------------------------------67b

(h) Question: If so, a similar decree should be made regarding Chalah!
(i) Answer: One who wants to exempt himself from Chalah can knead at most five Reva'im at a time (this is exempt from Chalah), he need not use a Nochri.
(j) Question: Also one who wants to exempt himself from Ma'aser can use R. Oshaya's method, he need not use a Nochri!
1. (R. Oshaya): A person may scheme, and bring produce into his house with the chaff, and his animal (or himself, if he eats casually) may eat without tithing.
(k) Answer: These methods are conspicuous, people are ashamed to use them, they would rather use a Nochri;
1. Kneading small doughs is inconspicuous, people not are ashamed to do this.
2) REAPING BEFORE THE "OMER"
(a) (Mishnah): Oil and Levonah were put in the Kli (Rashi's text - before the Isaron of Soles), more oil was poured on and (Tosfos - before pouring) Belilah (mixing the flour with oil) was done;
(b) They did Tenufah, Hagashah, Kemitzah and Haktarah;
(c) R. Meir says, immediately, the markets of Yerushalayim were full of (Chadash) flour and parched grain - Chachamim disapproved (if people harvest before the Omer, perhaps they will eat Chadash before the Omer);
(d) R.Yehudah says, Chachamim approved.
(e) (Gemara) Inference: R. Yehudah does not decree lest one will eat something forbidden.
(f) Contradiction (Mishnah - R. Yehudah): We check (for Chametz) on the night of (that begins) Nisan 14, (and if Bedikah was not done then) on the morning of the 14th, and at the time of Bi'ur (when Chametz must be destroyed, the sixth hour of the day (Rashi) or after noon (Tosfos Pesachim);
1. Version #1 (Rashi): Chachamim say, if Bedikah was not done (during the Mo'ed, i.e. time of Bi'ur), it is done afterwards (during Pesach.)
2. Version #2 (Tosfos): Chachamim say, if Bedikah was not done (during the Mo'ed, i.e. festival), it is done after Pesach (if one owned Chametz during Pesach, it becomes forbidden forever.)

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