Menachos 77 - CHANGING MEASURES
1) CHANGING MEASURES
(a) (Mishnah): The Todah comes from five Yerushalmi Sa'im, this equals six Sa'im of the Midbar;
(b) (According to the measures of the Midbar,) these are two Eifos, 20 Esronim - 10 Esronim are used for the Chametz, 10 are used for the Matzah.
(c) There are three kinds of Matzah (Lachmei Todah) - Chalos, Rekikim and Revuchah;
1. Three and a third Esronim are used for each kind of Matzah, three loaves to each Isaron.
(d) According to the Yerushalmi measures, these are 30 Kavim, 15 for the Chametz, 15 for the Matzah;
1. Each Chametz loaf is one and a half Kavim;
2. Five Kavim are used for each kind of Matzah, two loaves to each Kav.
(e) (Gemara) Question: What is the source that an Eifah is three Sa'im?
(f) Answer (Rav Chisda): "Ha'Eifah veha'Bas Tochen Echad Yihyeh (they are the same)";
1. An Eifah is three Sa'im, just like a Bas.
(g) Question: What is the source that a Bas is three Sa'im?
1. Suggestion: We learn from "Lases Ma'aser ha'Chomer ha'Bas" (Bas is a tenth of a Chomer.)
2. Rejection: If we know Chomer (that it is 30 Sa'im), we can learn Eifah directly from it (we need not learn from Bas) - "Va'Asiris ha'Chomer ha'Eifah"!
3. (Apparently, the Gemara did not know the meaning of "Chomer". - this is difficult, for a Torah verse (Vayikra 27:16) says that a field in which a Chomer of barley is sown is redeemed for 50 Shekalim, the Gemara (Erchin 25A) did not need a source that this is a Beis Kor.)
(h) Answer: We learn from "...Ma'aser ha'Bas Min ha'Kor" (it was known that a Kor is 30 Sa'im; the end of the verse teaches that also Chomer is 30 Sa'im - "Aseres ha'Batim Chomer...")
(i) (Shmuel): People of the city may not increase the measures more than a sixth, nor may they increase the (weight of the) coins by more than a sixth, a grocer may not charge more than a sixth above the price he pays for produce.
(j) Question: Why it is forbidden to increase the measures more than a sixth?
1. Suggestion: When merchants see that the measures increased, they will raise prices more than they should. (Rashi Kesav Yad - perhaps they will think that there is a food shortage!)
2. Rejection: If so, it should be forbidden to increase them even a sixth!
(k) Answer #1: We do not want sales to be invalidated (if a merchant did not know about the increase, he will charge the usual amount, people will buy using their own (new, increased) measure, underpaying more than a sixth. When the seller finds out, he can invalidate the sale.)
(l) Rejection: But Rava taught, if the wrong measure, weight or number was given, even less than a sixth, the sale is invalid (Rashbam; Rambam - the sale stands, but the additional amount must be given or returned.)
(m) Answer #2: We do not want merchants to lose money (they normally profit a sixth, they will only lose their profit).
(n) Objection: A merchant's income is from his profit, we should be concerned for his livelihood!
(a) Answer #3 (Rav Chisda): Chachamim expounded "Esrim Shekalim Chamishah v'Esrim Shekalim Asarah va'Chamishah Shekek ha'Maneh Yihyeh Lachem";
1. Question: A Maneh is (100 Dinarim,) not 240 (60 Shekalim, i.e. 20 and 25 and 15)!
2. Answer (Rav Chisda): We learn from this three things: the Maneh of Hekdesh is double a normal Maneh;
i. We may increase measures, but no more than a sixth; (a double Maneh should be 200 Dinarim, and the verse considers it 240);
ii. The sixth is 'outer' (the increase (40) is a sixth of the total (the new measure, 240), this equals a fifth of the old measure).
(o) Support (Ravina - Mishnah): The Todah comes from five Yerushalmi Sa'im, this equals six Sa'im of the Midbar (this shows that the an outer sixth is added.)
2) "TERUMAS LACHMEI TODAH"
(a) (Mishnah): One loaf of each of the four kinds is taken to be Terumah - "V'Hikriv Mimenu Echad mi'Kol Korban Terumah la'Sh-m";
1. "Echad" - a full loaf must be taken, not a piece; "mi'Kol Korban" - all the Korbanos (kinds of bread) must be the same (in number), one may not separate from one kind to exempt another kind.
2. "La'Kohen ha'Zorek Es Dam ha'Shelamim Lo Yihyeh" - the Kohen gets the Terumah, the remaining breads are eaten by the owner.
(b) (Gemara - Beraisa): "V'Hikriv *Mimenu*" - from Mechubar, i.e. the loaves must be together (Rashi Kesav Yad - in one vessel; Tosfos - touching) when Terumah is taken.
1. "Echad" - a full loaf must be taken; "mi'Kol Korban" - all the Korbanos must be the same, one may not separate from one kind to exempt another;
2. "La'Kohen ha'Zorek Es Dam ha'Shelamim Lo Yihyeh" - the remaining breads are eaten by the owner.
3. Question: (It says that one loaf of each kind is made Terumah) - how many loaves are there are of each kind?
4. Answer: It says here "Terumah", like it says regarding Terumas Ma'aser - there one part in 10 is Terumah, also here.
5. Question: Perhaps we should learn from Bikurim, which are also called Terumah - there, any amount suffices!
6. Answer: We learn Terumah (of Lachmei Todah) from Terumas Ma'aser, for no Terumah is taken after them, but after Bikurim, Terumah is taken from the remaining produce.
7. Question: Perhaps we should rather learn Lachmei Todah from Bikurim, for both of them must be eaten in a Kodesh place (Yerushalayim), but Terumas Ma'aser is permitted everywhere!
8. Answer: We learn from a Gezerah Shavah "Mimenu Terumah la'Sh-m" from Terumas Ma'aser.
9. Question: Indeed, this teaches that Terumah is one out of 10 - how much flour is used for each Chalah?
10. Answer: It says here "Lechem", like it says regarding Shtei ha'Lechem - just like there each loaf is one Isaron, also here.
11. Question: Perhaps we should rather learn from Lechem ha'Panim, it is also called Lechem, each loaf is two Esronim!
12. Answer: We learn Lachmei Todah from Shtei ha'Lechem, for both are Chametz brought with a Zevach.
13. Question: Perhaps we should rather learn Lachmei Todah from Lechem ha'Panim, for both may be brought from Eretz Yisrael or Chutz la'Aretz, and from Chadash or old grain!
14. Answer: Regarding Shtei ha'Lechem it says "Mi'Moshvoseichem Tavi'u Lechem Tenufah" - Tavi'u is extra (before this, it says "V'Hikravtem"), it teaches that whatever you bring similar to this (i.e. Chametz) should be the same size, one Isaron per loaf.
15. Question: Perhaps it teaches that any other Chametz brought should be the same *total* size, two Esronim!
16. Answer: "(Shnei Esronim Soles) Tihyenah" - this is written with an extra Yud, to teach about Lachmei Todah (this will be explained).
(c) Question: This teaches that 10 Esronim are used (altogether) for the Chametz - what is the source that 10 are used for the Matzah?
(d) Answer: "Al Chalos Lechem Chametz" - the Matzah has as much flour as the Chametz.
(e) Suggestion: Perhaps all the Matzah is baked the same way!
(f) Rejection: "...Chalos Matzos Belulos ba'Shemen u'Rekikei Matzos Meshuchim ba'Shamen v'Soles Murbeches" - there are three kinds, a third of the 10 Esronim are used for each, three Chalos are made from each Isaron;
1. In all there are 40 Lachmei Todah, four are given to the Kohen, the rest are eaten by the owner.
(g) (Beraisa): "V'Hikriv Mimenu" - from Mechubar.
(h) Question: If so, we should similarly expound "V'Es Kol Chelbo Yarim Mimenu" - if Chelev is removed after the Korban is dissected, how is this fulfilled?!
(i) Answer: Rav Chisda taught, the Korban is not dissected until the Eimurim are removed.
(j) (Beraisa): It says here "Terumah", like it says regarding Terumas Ma'aser...
(k) Question: Why don't we learn from Terumah taken from the spoils Benei Yisrael took after defeating Midyan? (Rashi - this refers to what Benei Yisrael gave to the Leviyim, one part in 50 (of Benei Yisrael's half); Rashi Kesav Yad - it refers to what the soldiers gave to the Kohanim, one part in 500.)
(l) Answer: We learn Terumas Lachmei Todah from Terumas Ma'aser, for both of these apply to all generations.
(m) Question: Why don't we learn from Chalah, which is called Terumah? (Rashi - we would learn one part in 48, like bakers must give Chalah; Rashi Kesav Yad - we would learn a 24th, like regular people give.)
(n) Answer (Tana d'vei R. Yishmael): We learn Terumas Lachmei Todah from Terumas Ma'aser, regarding both of these it says "Mimenu Terumas Hash-m".
(o) Question (Rava): If a Zar ate Terumas Lachmei Todah, is he Chayav Misah bi'Dei Shamayim (if he ate b'Mezid), does he add a fifth (when paying for it, if he ate b'Shogeg)?
1. Since it is equated to Terumas Ma'aser, Misah and Chomesh apply;
2. Or, perhaps the exclusions "Vo"`and "Chamishiso" teach that these apply to Terumah, not to Terumas Lachmei Todah.
(p) Question: If Terumas Lachmei Todah became mixed with other food, does it Medame'a (forbid its mixture to Zarim?)
(q) These questions are not resolved.