Menachos 83 -
1) "KODSHEI KODOSHIM" ARE COMPARED TO EACH OTHER
(a) (Continuation of R. Eliezer's teaching): Just like Minchah is eaten only by male Kohanim, also all of these Korbanos.
1. Question: Which Korbanos are learned from this?
2. Answer #1: We learn about Chatas and Asham.
3. Rejection: Another verse explicitly teaches about them!
4. Answer #2: We learn about Shalmei Tzibur.
5. Question: Another verse teaches about them!
i. "B'Kodesh ha'Kodoshim Tochalenu Kol Zachar Yochal Oso" - this teaches that Shalmei Tzibur may be eaten only by male Kohanim.
6. Answer: Tana'im argue about the source of this - some learn from "B'Kodesh ha'Kodoshim...", R. Eliezer learns from the Hekesh to Minchah.
(b) Just like absorptions of Chatas forbid (if a food absorbs from Chatas, it has all the restrictions of the Chatas), also all Korbanos.
(c) Just like there is no Kedushah to a fetus or fetal sac inside an Asham (it is male, it cannot have a fetus or fetal sac inside), there is no Kedushah to a fetus or fetal sac inside any Korban;
1. R. Eliezer holds that the child of a Korban is not Kodesh until it is born, and that we learn possible from impossible.
(d) Just like Nosar meat of Milu'im must be burned, but not Mosar (live) animals, the same applies to all Korbanos.
(e) Just like (intent Chutz li'Zmano in) Shelamim can Mefagel (its Nesachim) and it can become Pigul, the same applies to all Korbanos.
(f) (Beraisa - R. Akiva): "Zos ha'Torah..." - just like absorptions of Minchah forbid, also all Korbanos;
1. The Torah must teach absorptions of Chatas and of Minchah:
i. If it only taught Minchah, one might have thought only Minchah forbids, for it is soft, it is easily absorbed;
ii. If it only taught Chatas, one might have thought only Chatas forbids, for fatty meat penetrates deeply.
(g) Just like Chatas must be brought from Chulin money, during the day, and using the right hand (for Zerikah), also all Korbanos.
1. Question: What is the source that Chatas must be from Chulin?
2. Answer (Rav Chisda): "V'Hikriv Aharon Es Par ha'Chatas Asher Lo" - it must be his, it cannot be of Ma'aser (this refers to Par Yom Kipur, all Chata'os have the same law.)
3. Question: "B'Yom Tzavoso..." teaches that all Korbanos must be brought during the day!
4. Answer: Indeed, we do not learn this from Chatas, it was taught for no reason.
5. Question: We learn the right hand from Rabah bar bar Chanah!
i. (Rabah bar bar Chanah): 'Etzba' or 'Kehunah' (by itself) always teaches that the right hand is required (and regarding every Korban, it says 'Kohen'!)
6. Answer: Indeed, we do not learn this from Chatas, it was taught for no reason.
(h) Just like bones of Asham are permitted, also bones of all Korbanos, (The Torah permitted all the meat (except for the Eimurim) to Kohanim, and Nosar does not apply to the bones; alternatively, we learn from "Lo Yihyeh".)
(i) Question: What does R. Akiva learn from "V'Zavachta Pesach"? (He does not need it to teach that Pesach comes from Chulin, like R. Eliezer did.)
(j) Answer: He learns Rav Nachman's law.
1. (Rav Nachman): Mosar Pesach (money Hukdash for Pesach that was not needed; alternatively, Chalifas Pesach) is offered like a Shelamim - "V'Zavachta Pesach...Tzon u'Vakar";
i. Question: Korban Pesach cannot be Bakar (cattle), only a lamb or goat!
ii. Answer: Rather, it teaches that Mosar Pesach becomes a Korban that can be (any, i.e. male or female) cattle or flock, i.e. Shelamim (Rashi in Zevachim; Rashi Kesav Yad - Pesach was Hukdash to be eaten, so its Mosar does not become an Olah.)
(k) Question #1: Shmuel's father gave a different source for this!
1. (Shmuel's father): "V'Im Min ha'Tzon" - (Mosar of) something brought from Tzon (i.e. Pesach) is Shelamim.
(l) Question #2: There is a third source for this!
1. (Beraisa): "Kesev" - this includes the tail of a lamb that is a Pesach (it is considered Eimurim, it is Huktar);
2. "Im Kesev" includes a Pesach above one year and a Shelamim that comes on account of Pesach (Rashi - Mosar Pesach; Rashi Kesav Yad - the Chagigah of Erev Pesach (for satiation before eating the Pesach); Tosfos - Temuras Pesach);
i. These are like Shelamim in all respects, i.e. they require Semichah, Nesachim and Tenufah of the chest and foreleg.
2. "V'Im Ez" separates, to teach that the tail of a goat is not part of the Eimurim.
(m) Answer (to both questions): There are three verses, they teach about three kinds of Mosar Pesach (all become Shelamim), i.e.:
1. After its first year and after Pesach passed (the same applies to before Pesach);
2. Within its first year and after Pesach passed;
3. Within its first year before Pesach came (e.g. Chalifas Pesach.)
(n) The Torah must teach all three cases.
1. If it only taught the first, one might have thought that only then it is Shelamim, because it is totally unfit for Pesach; but not within its first year after Pesach, for it is still fit for Pesach Sheni;
2. If it only taught the first two cases, one might have thought that only then it is Shelamim, because it is unfit for Pesach Rishon; but not within its first year before Pesach, for then it is still fit for Pesach Rishon.
***** PEREK KOL KORBANOS HA'TZIBUR ****
2) THE GRAIN USED FOR "MENACHOS"
(a) (Mishnah): All (Menachos of) Korbanos Tzibur may come from Eretz Yisrael or Chutz la'Aretz and from Chadash or Yashan, except for the Omer and Shtei ha'Lechem, which must come from Chadash of Eretz Yisrael.
(b) All Menachos must come from choice grain;
1. The best places for Soles are Machnis and Zatcha, next best is Aforayim in the valley.
2. All places in Eretz Yisrael are Kesherim, they would bring from here for these are the best.
(c) (Gemara): Our Mishnah is unlike the following Tana:
1. (Beraisa): If the Omer or Shtei ha'Lechem was brought from Yashan, it is Kosher, but a Mitzvah was lost;
2. Regarding the Omer it says "Takriv Es Minchas Bikurecha" - even from the attic (Yashan, not harvested for the sake of the Omer);
3. Regarding Shtei ha'Lechem it says "Mi'Moshvoseichem Tavi'u" - not from Chutz la'Aretz;
"Mi'Moshvoseichem" - even from the attic.
4. Question: We already expounded this!
5. Answer: The latter law is learned from "Tavi'u" (this is extra, for before this it says "V'Hikravtem".)
6. Question: We used this to teach that whatever you bring similar to this (i.e. Chametz, in Todah) should be the same size, one Isaron per loaf!
7. Answer: It could have said 'Tavi' - rather, it says "Tavi'u", to also teach about Lachmei Todah.
8. Question: But (regarding both of them) it says "Reishis"!
9. Answer: That is l'Chatchilah, b'Diavad Yashan is Kosher.
10. Question: But (regarding Shtei ha'Lechem) it says "Chadashah"!
11. Answer (Beraisa - R. Noson and R. Akiva): Shtei ha'Lechem from Yashan is Kosher;
i. It says "Chadashah" - to fulfill this, it must precede all Menachos of Chadash.