Menachos 84 - PRODUCE THAT IS FIT FOR THE
1) PRODUCE THAT IS FIT FOR THE "OMER"
(a) The Tana'im (of the Mishnah and Beraisa) only argue about Chadash, all agree that it must be from Eretz Yisrael - they argue with the following Tana:
1. (Beraisa - R. Yosi b'Rebbi Yehudah): The Omer may be brought from Chutz la'Aretz;
i. "Ki Savo'u El ha'Aretz" teaches that the obligation to bring it starts when Yisrael will enter Eretz Yisrael (not that it must be brought from Eretz Yisrael.)
2. He holds that mid'Oraisa, Chadash is forbidden in Chutz la'Aretz.
i. He expounds "Mi'Moshvoseichem" - wherever you dwell; "Ki Savo'u" - the obligation starts upon entering Eretz Yisrael.
(b) (Mishnah): People guarding Sefichim (produce that grows by itself) in Shemitah (for the Omer) are paid from Terumas ha'Lishkah.
(c) Contradiction (Rami bar Chama): A Mishnah teaches that people guarding Sefichim are paid from Terumas ha'Lishkah, and a Beraisa teaches "(Shemitah produce is) L'Achlah" - not to burn (how can the Omer be brought from Shemitah, a Kometz is Huktar?)!
(d) Answer (Rav Chisda): It says "L'Dorosam" to teach that we bring the Omer even in Shemitah.
(e) Question (Rami bar Chama): I agree that it is brought - I ask, why don't we bring it from the previous year's produce?
(f) Answer #1 (Rav Chisda): It must be Karmel (soft).
1. Question: We could use moist produce of the previous year!
2. Answer: It says "Karmel Takriv" - it must be soft at the time it is offered.
(g) R. Yochanan taught like Rav Chisda, it must be soft.
(h) Answer #2 (R. Elazar): "Reishis Ketzircha" - it must be the beginning of its harvest, not the end.
(i) Question (Rabah - Beraisa): "V'Im Takriv Minchas Bikurim" - this refers to the Omer, it comes from barley;
1. Suggestion: Perhaps it comes from wheat!
2. Rejection #1 (R. Eliezer): It says here "Aviv", the name of the month of leaving Miztrayim;
i. Just like Aviv of Mitzrayim refers to (the season to harvest) barley, also Aviv of the Omer.
3. Rejection #2 (R. Akiva): Individuals bring obligatory Menachos of wheat (Minchas Chotei) and of barley (Minchas Sotah) - the Tzibur brings Menachos of wheat (e.g. Shtei ha'Lechem) and of barley;
i. If the Omer would be wheat, the Tzibur would never bring barley.
4. Rejection #3 (R. Akiva): If the Omer would be wheat, the Shtei ha'Lechem would not be Bikurim (the first of its species - but the Torah calls it Bikurim!)
(j) R. Yochanan is refuted (Tosfos - also R. Elazar is refuted, he learned from a different verse.)
2) PRODUCE THAT IS FIT FOR "BIKURIM"
(a) (Mishnah): We do not bring Bikurim other than the seven species (of Eretz Yisrael), nor from dates that grow in the mountains nor fruits that grow in canyons (they are inferior.)
(b) (Ula): If they were brought, they are not Kodesh.
(c) Question (R. Acha bar Aba - Beraisa): "Korban Reishis" - Shtei ha'Lechem must be the first Minchah (from Chadash);
1. It also says "B'Hakrivchem Minchah Chadashah la'Sh-m bi'Shavu'oseichem".
2. Question: This only teaches that Shtei ha'Lechem must be the first Minchah from Chadash wheat - what is the source that a Minchah of Chadash barley may not precede it (alternatively - may not precede the Omer?)
3. Answer: Another verse says "(V'Hikravtem Minchah) Chadashah" - since we do not need it to teach about wheat, it teaches about barley.
4. Question: What is the source that Bikurim may not precede Shtei ha'Lechem?
5. Answer: "V'Chag Shavu'os Ta'aseh Lecha Bikurei Ketzir Chitim"
6. Question: That only teaches that Bikurim of wheat may not precede Shtei ha'Lechem - what is the source regarding barley?
7. Answer: "V'Chag ha'Katzir Bikurei Ma'asecha Asher Tizra ba'Sadeh" (on Shavu'os, we offer Shtei ha'Lechem, the first produce.)
8. Question: That only teaches about what was Nizra (planted) - what is the source for things that grew by themselves?
9. Answer: "Ba'Sadeh".
10. Question: What is the source for things that grow on the roof, in a Churvah (ruin), in an Atzitz, or on a boat?
11. Answer: "Bikurei Kol Asher b'Artzam".
12. Question: What is the source that Nesachim and (Bikurim of other) fruits may not precede Shtei ha'Lechem?
13. Answer: It says here "Bikurei Ma'asecha", like it says there (regarding Sukos) "B'Ospecha Es Ma'asecha Min ha'Sadeh";
i. There, "Ma'asecha" includes wine and fruits (they are finished and gathered at Sukos) - also here "Ma'asecha" includes wine and fruits.
14. Summation of question: We learn that things that grow on the roof, in a ruin, in an Atzitz, or on a boat can be Bikurim - all the more so, what grows in the mountains or canyons (which are not so inferior!)
(d) Answer: The Seifa (of the Beraisa, 'Things that grow on the roof...') refers to Menachos (but they are Pesulim for Bikurim. Alternatively - the Seifa of "Bikurei Kol Asher b'Artzam" (the last three words) refer to Menachos, not to Bikurim.)
(e) Question (Rav Ada bar Ahavah): The verse ("Bikurei...") ends "Kol Tahor b'Veischa Yochalenu", but Menachos may be eaten only by male Kohanim!
(f) Answer (Rav Mesharshiya) Contradiction: Just before that it says "Lecha Yihyeh" (for you (Aharon) and those like you, i.e. males)!
1. Resolution #1 (Rav Mesharshiya): "Kol Tahor b'Veischa" refers to Bikurim, "Lecha Yihyeh" refers to Menachos.
2. Resolution #2 (Rav Ashi): The entire verse refers to (kinds of) Menachos - "Kol Tahor b'Veischa" refers to (Terumas) Lachmei Todah (a Kohenes may eat them), "Lecha Yihyeh" refers to Menachos.
3) CAN INFERIOR PRODUCE BECOME "BIKURIM"?
(a) Other Amora'im argue about Ula's law.
(b) (R. Yochanan): If mountain dates or canyon fruits were brought for Bikurim, they are not Kodesh;
(c) (Reish Lakish): They are Kodesh, just like a weak animal (one should not make it a Korban - b'Diavad, if one did, it is Kodesh.)
(d) Question: What is R. Yochanan's reason?
(e) R. Elazar: I saw R. Yochanan in a dream - surely, I will give a good reason!
(f) Answer (R. Elazar): "*Mi*'Reishis" - not all Reishis (Bikurim applies only to the seven species); "*Mi*'Artzecha" - not everything in your land (inferior fruit is Pasul for Bikurim.)
(g) Question: How does Reish Lakish expound "Mi'Artzecha"?
(h) Answer (Beraisa - R. Gamliel bar Rebbi): It says "Eretz" regarding Bikurim, and regarding the seven species - this teaches that Bikurim are brought from the seven species.
(i) Question: What is R. Yochanan's source for this?
("Mi'Reishis" does not teach which fruits to bring!)
(j) Answer: He learns this from "Eretz", he excludes inferior fruit from the 'Mem'.
(k) Reish Lakish does not expound the 'Mem'.
(l) (Beraisa #1): One may bring Bikurim and Korei (recite Viduy Bikurim) from the following:
1. Produce that grew on the roof, in a Churvah, in an Atzitz, or on a boat.
(m) Contradiction (Beraisa #2): One brings Bikurim from these but does not Korei.
(n) Answer - part 1: Reish Lakish can answer, one brings and is Korei for produce that grew on the roof of a cave (this is like regular land), in a plowed Churvah, in an Atzitz with a hole, or on a Cheres (earthenware) boat (the produce is considered to be growing in Eretz Yisrael, because Cheres is made from dirt (Rashi; R. Tam - there are holes in the Cheres, they are filled with dirt. Alternatively - the boat is of wood, this allows moisture and nutrients from the floor of the river to pass through);
1. One brings and is not Korei for produce that grew on the roof of a house, in an unplowed Churvah, in an Atzitz without a hole, or on a wooden boat (the produce is not considered to be growing in Eretz Yisrael (R. Tam - even if there are holes in the wood. Alternatively, the boat is of Cheres, it does not allow moisture or nutrients to pass through.)
(o) Question: How can R. Yochanan answer (he says that such Bikurim are not Kodesh!)?
(p) Answer: Tana'im argue about this (he holds like the following Tana):
1. (Beraisa): One brings Bikurim and does not Korei for produce that grew on the roof or in a Churvah;
2. One does not bring Bikurim (at all) from produce of an Atzitz or a boat.