Chulin 6 - THE SLAUGHTER OF
1) THE SLAUGHTER OF "KUSIM"
(i) (Conclusion): If R. Zeira did not accept the answer - he would say, the decree was on unsupervised slaughter, and they ate from supervised slaughter!
1. Rather, R. Zeira accepted the answer.
(ii) Question: Why did they decree?
(iii) Answer: For the same reason as R. Meir.
1. R. Meir sent R. Shimon Ben Elazar to bring wine from a city of Kusim. An elder warned: "Put a knife in your cheek, if you value your soul" (i.e. don't drink their wine).
2. When R. Meir heard this, he decreed that wine of Kusim is forbidden.
3. Question: Why?
4. Answer (Rav Nachman Bar Yitzchak): He found Kusim worshipping a graven dove on Har Grizim.
à. R. Meir generally is concerned for a minority (here, he forbids wine of all Kusim on account of those who are idolators).
5. R. Gamliel and his Beis Din are also concerned for a minority, as R. Meir.
6. Question: What is the primary teaching of "Put a knife in your cheek, if you value your soul"?
7. Answer: It speaks of a Talmid learning before his Rebbi.
8. (R. Chiya): "When you sit to combat the ruler (to learn from your Rebbi), contemplate what is in front of you; put a knife in your cheek, if you value your soul" - only ask a question if you think that your Rebbi can answer; if not, refrain from asking.
(iv) R. Avahu sent R. Yitzchak bar Yosef to bring wine from a city of Kusim. An elder warned: the people here do not guard the Torah. When R. Avahu heard, he told R. Ami and Rav Asi; they decreed that Kusim are as Nochri in all respects.
(v) Question: What did their decree affect?
1. Suggestion: If the slaughter and wine of Kusim - R. Gamliel and R. Meir already decreed on them!
(vi) Answer: The previous decrees were not accepted; the decree of R. Ami and R. Asi was accepted.
(vii) Question: Regarding what did they make them totally as Nochrim?
(viii) Answer (Rav Nachman Bar Yitzchak): In an alleyway that opens to a courtyard in which a Kusi lives, it is forbidden to carry in on Shabbos. It does not help if he grants full rights of access to his premises to all; the only solution is if the members of the alley rent his property.
1. (Beraisa): A Yisrael Mumar that keeps Shabbos in public can grants rights of access to his premises to all in the alleyway, and this allows them to carry; if he desecrates Shabbos in public, it does not help if he allows access to his premises.
2. A Yisrael can grant access; a Nochri must rent out his premises to permit carrying.
à. If the Yisrael says, 'my property is acquired to you, it is nullified to you' - this suffices; an act of acquisition is not needed.
2) COULD A "TZADIK" SIN WITH FORBIDDEN FOOD?
(i) R. Zeira and Rav Asi lodged at an inn. They served them eggs that had been shriveled in wine. R. Zeira did not eat; Rav Asi ate.
1. R. Zeira: Aren't you concerned that they absorbed Demai (doubtfully tithed) wine?
2. Rav Asi: I did not think about that.
(ii) R. Zeira thought - can it be that mixtures containing Demai are forbidden, and Rav Asi mistakenly ate one?
1. Hash-m does not allow a pitfall to come even through animals of Tzadikim, all the more so through Tzadikim themselves!
2. R. Zeira found a source that indeed, such mixtures are permitted.
à. (Mishnah): One who buys wine to put into brine or a potion of wine and oil, fodder to make brine, or lentils to make & - he must Ma'aser them if they are Demai, all the more so if they are Tevel (definitely untithed)!
á. If one buys the mixture itself, there is no obligation to Ma'aser a mixture containing Demai.
(iii) Contradiction (Beraisa): One who gives his neighbor a dough to bake or a pot to cook, he need not worry that she leavened or spiced it with sourdough or spices of Tevel or Shemitah produce;
1. If he told her to use her sourdough or spices, he must be concerned.
(iv) Answer #1: There is different - since he told her to use hers, she is as his agent to mix in Demai, he is obligated to Ma'aser it before it became a mixture.
(v) Answer #2 (Rafram): Sourdough and spices are different - they are added for their taste, they are not nullified.
3) WILL AN IGNORAMUS SWITCH SOMEONE'S FOOD
(i) Question: Are we really not concerned that an ignoramus will switch a person's food?
1. (Mishnah): One who to his mother-in-law (dough to bake) must Ma'aser the dough he gives her and the bread he receives, because she will switch it if it is spoiling.
(ii) Answer: R. Yehudah explained the reason there.
1. R. Yehudah says, (we are concerned she will switch) because she wants her daughter to eat well, but she is ashamed to tell this to her son-in-law.
(iii) Question: Are we really not concerned (in general) that an ignoramus will switch a person's food?
1. (Mishnah): One who gives to the inn-keeper (dough to bake) must Ma'aser the dough he gives her and the bread he receives, because she is suspected to switch it.
(iv) Answer: There also, she rationalizes her action - this Talmid should eat fresh, warm bread, and I should eat cold bread! (Rashi - she wants to benefit the Talmid; Tosfos - this is said incredulously, she feels that she should eat better than him.)
(v) Question: Are we really not concerned (in general) that an ignoramus will switch a person's food?
1. [Version #1 - Tosfos - (Mishnah): The wife of a fully observant man may grind flour with the help of Le'ah (an ignoramus' wife) when Le'ah (knows she) is Teme'ah, not when she (thinks she) is Tehorah (for then, Le'ah will take some to eat, and make it Tamei);
2. R. Shimon Ben Elazar says, even when Le'ah is Teme'ah she may not help, for Le'ah's friend Rachel (also an ignoramus' wife, who considers herself to be Tehorah) will give Le'ah to eat (and Rachel will make the dough Tamei).
à. We see, an ignoramus' wife will steal - all the more so, she is suspected to switch!
(vi) Answer (Rav Yosef): There also, she rationalizes her action - an ox is allowed to eat while threshing (since Le'ah is helping, she deserves to eat)!]
1. [Version #2 - Rashi - (Mishnah): Sarah, the wife of a fully observant man, may help Le'ah (an ignoramus' wife) to grind when Sarah is Teme'ah, not when she is Tehorah;
2. R. Shimon Ben Elazar says, even when Sarah is Teme'ah she may not, for Le'ah will give her to eat.
à. We see, an ignoramus' wife will steal (from her husband)- all the more so, she is suspected to switch!
(vii) Answer (Rav Yosef): There also, she rationalizes her action - an ox is allowed to eat while threshing (and also Sarah, who is helping)!]
4) THE STATUS OF BEIS SHE'AN
(i) R. Yehoshua ben Zeruz testified in front of Rebbi that R. Meir ate a leaf of a vegetable from Beis She'an without separating Ma'aseros; based on this, Rebbi declared that Beis She'an is exempt from Ma'aseros (except for grain, wine and oil).
1. Rebbi's family: Your ancestors forbade this (to eat Tevel from Beis She'an) - will you allow it?!
2. Question (Rebbi): "(Chizkiyahu) ground up the copper serpent that Moshe had made, because Yisrael were serving it as idolatry" - how is it that Asa and Yehoshafat eradicated all idolatry from the world, but not this serpent?!