Chulin 24 - KILLING
1) KILLING "PARAH ADUMAH" AND "EGLAH ARUFAH"
(a) Rejection #1: It says "He will slaughter it"; and it says "Chukas (statute)" (which implies that everything must be done exactly like said) - by slaughter, not by Arifah.
(b) Objection: "Chukas" does not say that we cannot learn from a Kal va'Chomer!
1. It says "Chukas" by Yom Kipur;
2. (Beraisa): "He will make it a Chatas" - the Goral (lottery) fixes the goat to be a Chatas, calling it a Chatas does not.
i. One might have thought to learn a Kal va'Chomer - calling a bird a Chatas makes it a Chatas, but a Goral does not - a Goral makes one of the goats of Yom Kipur a Chatas, all the more so calling it a Chatas should work!
ii. The verse teaches that this is not so.
iii. If not for the verse, we would have learned a Kal va'Chomer, even though it says "Chukas"!
(c) Rejection #2: "*Ha*'Arufah" - the calf is Arufah, something else (Parah Adumah) is not.
(d) Suggestion: Slaughter should be valid for Eglah Arufah from a Kal va'Chomer.
1. Arifah is not valid for Parah Adumah, but slaughter is; Arifah is valid for Eglah Arufah, all the more so slaughter should be valid!
(e) Rejection: "They will break the calf's neck" - Arifah is valid, slaughter is not.
2) DISQUALIFICATIONS FOR KOHANIM AND LEVI'IM
(a) (Mishnah): What is valid for Kohanim is invalid by Levi'im; what is valid by Levi'im is invalid for Kohanim.
(b) (Gemara - Beraisa): Kohanim are disqualified by blemishes, not by age; Levi'im are disqualified by age, not by blemishes.
1. What is valid by Kohanim is invalid by Levi'im; what is valid by Levi'im is invalid by Kohanim.
(c) Question: What is the source for this?
(d) Answer (Beraisa): "After 50 years of age, a Levi will cease serving" - this teaches that age disqualifies a Levi.
1. Suggestion: A Kal va'Chomer should teach that blemishes disqualify a Levi.
i. Kohanim are not disqualified by age, but blemishes disqualify them; Levi'im, that are disqualified by age, all the more so blemishes should disqualify them!
2. Rejection: "This is that is to the Levi'im" - age disqualifies Levi'im, nothing else.
3. Suggestion: A Kal va'Chomer should teach that age disqualifies a Kohen.
i. Blemishes do not disqualify Levi'im, but age disqualifies them; blemishes disqualify Kohanim, all the more so age should disqualify them!
4. Rejection: "That is to the Levi'im" - and not to the Kohanim.
5. Suggestion: Age should disqualify Levi'im even from serving in the Mishkan at Shilo and in the Mikdash.
6. Rejection: "To perform service, and the service of carrying" - age only disqualifies them when the service is carrying (the Mishkan) on the shoulder.
(e) Contradiction: One verse says "From the age of 25"; another says "From 30 years"!
(f) Answer: From the age of 25 they learn the laws of service; at age 30, they start serving.
1. This is the source that a Talmid that does not see success in his le
2. R. Yosi says, he must see success within three years - "three years to teach them to read and the language of the Babylonians."
i. Chachamim do not learn from this, for the language of the Babylonians is easy, therefore three years suffice.
ii. R. Yosi dos not learn from the Levi'im - laws of service are hard, therefore five years are needed.
(g) (Beraisa): A Kohen may serve from the time he brings two hairs (adulthood) until he gets old; a blemish disqualifies him.
(h) A Levi may serve from the age of 30 until 50, age disqualifies him.
1. This applies to the service in the Mishkan, in the Midbar; in Shilo and the Mikdash, he is only disqualified by inability to coordinate his voice.
2. R. Yosi: This is learned from "The trumpeters and singers will be together like one voice".
(i) Question: What is considered too old?
(j) Answer (R. Chanina): Until he quivers.
(k) (Mishnah): If a man had a seminal emission and immersed before urinating, when he next urinates, he is Tamei (for not all the semen left the first time, the remainder is Metamei him when it leaves with the urine);
1. R. Yosi says, this is if he is old or sick; if he is young and healthy (all the semen left the first time), he remains Tahor.
2. Question: What is considered young?
3. Answer (R. Ilai): If while standing on one leg, he can take off and put on a shoe on the other leg.
i. R. Chanina was able to do this at the age of 80.
ii. R. Chanina: My strength in my old age is a result of the warm baths and lubricating oil my mother gave me in my youth.
(l) (Beraisa): When a man's beard is full, he may be appointed to exempt the congregation in prayer and to bless Birkas Kohanim;
(m) He may serve in the Mikdash from the time he brings two hairs; Rebbi says, from the time he is 20.
1. (Rav Chisda): Rebbi learns from "They stood up the Levi'im from the sage of 20 to sing".
i. Chachamim hold that singing is different that other Avodah.
2. Objection: This verse discusses Levi'im!
3. Answer: R. Yehoshua ben Levi taught, in 24 verses, Kohanim are called Levi'im.
(n) (Beraisa - R. Elazar): "A *man* of (Aharon's) seed for generations (that has a blemish)" - this teaches that a minor, even unblemished, may not serve.
1. He may serve after he brings two hairs, but the older Kohanim would not allow anyone to serve before 20.
i. Version #1: This is like Rebbi - below 20 there is no prohibition to serve, just a custom that he does not serve.
ii. Version #2: Rebbi says that below 20 he is disqualified from serving; R. Elazar holds like Chachamim - l'Chatchilah he may not serve; b'Diavad, if he served, it is valid.
3) "TUM'AH" OF VESSELS
(a) (Mishnah): The part of earthenware vessels that is Tahor, this part of other vessels is Tamei; the part of other vessels that is Tahor, this part of earthenware vessels is Tamei.
(b) (Gemara - Beraisa): The interior (airspace) of earthenware vessels is Tamei, the back (outer surface) is Tahor; the interior of other vessels is Tahor, the back is Tamei.
1. The part of earthenware vessels that is Tahor, this part of other vessels is Tamei; the part of other vessels that is Tahor, this part of earthenware vessels is Tamei.
(c) Question: What is the source of this?
(d) Answer (Beraisa): "(An earthenware vessel becomes Tamei if Tum'ah enters) its inside" - even though it did not touch the vessel.
1. Suggestion: Perhaps it is only if it touched!
2. Rejection (R. Yonason ben Avtulmus): It says "Its inside" regarding the foods in the vessel becoming Tamei, and also by the vessel becoming Tamei.
i. Just like the former is even if the contents do not touch the vessel, also the latter is even if the Tum'ah does not touch the vessel.
ii. Question: How do we know that the contents become Tamei without touching?
iii. Answer (R. Yonason): The Torah declared that the contents of an earthenware vessel are Tamei, even if it is full of mustard seeds (even though the interior seeds are separated by many layers of seeds from the vessel).