Chulin 25 - THE
1) THE "TUM'AH" OF EARTHENWARE VESSELS
(a) Question (Rav Ada bar Ahavah): A Kal va'Chomer should teach that an earthenware vessel becomes Tamei if Tum'ah touches its back!
1. Any other vessel does not become Tamei through its interior but becomes Tamei if Tum'ah touches its back - an earthenware vessel becomes Tamei through its interior, all the more so it should become Tamei through its exterior!
(b) Answer (Rava): "Any *open* vessel that is not Tzamid Pasil (flushly sealed)" - this refers to earthenware vessels, which become Tamei as soon as Tum'ah enters their opening.
1. If it has no Tzamid Pasil, it becomes Tamei (in a tent with a Mes) - if it has a Tzamid Pasil, it remains Tahor (it does not receive Tum'ah from its exterior).
(c) Suggestion: A Kal va'Chomer should teach that any other vessel becomes Tamei if Tum'ah enters its interior.
1. An earthenware vessel does not become Tamei through its back, but it becomes Tamei if Tum'ah enters its interior - any other vessel, which becomes Tamei through its back, all the more so it should become Tamei through its interior!
(d) Rejection: "*It's* inside" - only earthenware vessels becomes Tamei from their interior.
(e) Question: We already expounded "Its inside"!
(f) Answer: We learn four things from the words "Its inside" (since this appears twice, and each time it could have said just "inside",
1. One is needed for the simple meaning;
2. One is for the Gezeirah Shavah teaching that Tum'ah makes the vessel Tamei even without touching it;
3. One teaches that only earthenware vessels become Tamei in this way;
4. One teaches that inside the inside (something in a vessel in the earthenware vessel), even if the inner vessel is not earthenware, is not considered like being inside the outer vessel.
(g) Suggestion: A Kal va'Chomer should teach that other vessels do not become Tamei through their backs, only if Tum'ah touches their interior.
1. Earthenware vessels become Tamei if Tum'ah enters their interior, but not from their backs - other vessels do not become Tamei through their interior, all the more so they should not become Tamei through their backs!
(h) Rejection: "Any *open* vessel that is not flushly sealed" - earthenware vessels without a Tzamid Pasil become Tamei (in a tent with a Mes) - if they have a Tzamid Pasil, they remain Tahor;
1. Other vessels become Tamei (from their exterior) even if they have a Tzamid Pasil.
2) WOODEN AND METAL VESSELS
(a) (Mishnah): The kinds of wooden vessels that are Tehorim, such metal vessels are Teme'im (Mekabel Tum'ah); the kinds of metal vessels that are Tehorim, such wooden vessels are Teme'im.
(b) (Gemara - Beraisa): Unfinished wooden vessels are Teme'im (Mekabel Tum'ah), simple wooden vessels (i.e. without an interior) are Tehorim; unfinished metal vessels are Tehorim; simple metal vessels are Teme'im;
1. The kinds of wooden vessels that are Tehorim, such metal vessels are Teme'im; the kinds of metal vessels that are Tehorim, such wooden vessels are Teme'im.
2. The following are unfinished wooden vessels - anything which must still be rubbed, smoothed, engraved, or adorned with small nails;
i. If it is missing a base, rim or handle, it is Tamei; if it has not yet been carved out, it is Tahor.
ii. Question: Obviously, if it has not yet been carved out it is Tahor!
iii. Answer: The case is, it has been partially carved out; the owner intends to carve out more.
3. The following are unfinished metal vessels - anything which must still be rubbed, smoothed, engraved, adorned with small nails;
i. If it is missing a base, rim or handle, it is Tahor; if it is missing a cover, it is Tamei.
(c) Question: Why are the laws of unfinished wooden and metal vessels different?
(d) Answer #1 (R. Yochanan): Metal vessels are made to be honorable (they do not fulfill their purpose until they look honorable).
(e) Answer #2 (Rav Nachman): Metal vessels are expensive (they are made to be sold).
1. The difference between these answers is vessels made of bone, which are expensive, but not made for honor.
2. Rav Nachman taught similarly elsewhere:
i. (Rav Nachman): Bone vessels are like metal vessels.
3. Question: This implies that bone vessels can become Tamei - what is the source for this?
4. Answer (R. Yishmael, son of R. Yochanan ben Brokah): "You will sprinkle (water with ashes of the Parah Adumah, to Metaher from Tum'as Mes) everything made from sheep" this includes things made from the horns and hooves.
i. We learn vessels from bones of other animals from "Everything made from sheep".
ii. Question: If so, why did the Torah specify sheep?
iii. Answer: It excludes foul.
3) WHICH ALMONDS ARE "TEVEL"?
(a) (Mishnah): The kind (i.e. size) of bitter almonds that are Tevel (Ma'aser must be taken), such sweet almonds are exempt; the kind of sweet almonds that are Tevel, such bitter almonds are exempt.
(b) (Gemara - Beraisa): Small bitter almonds are Tevel, large ones are exempt; large sweet almonds are Tevel, small ones are exempt;
1. Version #1 (R. Yishmael b'Rebbi Yosi): Both kinds (Rashi - small bitter or sweet; Tosfos - small or large bitter) are exempt. 2. Version #2 (R. Yishmael b'Rebbi Yosi): Both kinds (Rashi - large bitter or sweet; Tosfos - small or large bitter) are Tevel.
i. Question: Why are large (bitter) almonds Tevel - they are not fit to eat!
ii. Answer: They can be sweetened through cooking.
(a) (Mishnah): If Temed (water which absorbed taste from dregs of wine, or from grape skins and pits) has not yet fermented, it may not be bought with money of Ma'aser Sheni;
1. If (three Lugim of) such Temed was in a vessel and fell into an incomplete Mikveh (less than 40 Sa'im), this disqualifies the Mikveh (even if proper water is later added to it);
(b) If it fermented, it may be bought with money of Ma'aser Sheni, and it does not disqualify a Mikveh.
(c) If brothers split an inheritance:
1. If they are obligated to add a Kalbon (a small coin added to the half-Shekel which is annually given for Korbanos Tzibur) (i.e., if the brothers already divided the inheritance, and later made a partnership), they are exempt from taking Ma'aser on animals born each year;
2. If they are obligated in Ma'aser Behemah (i.e., before they divide the inheritance), they are exempt from adding a Kalbon.
(d) (Gemara) Question: The Mishnah is not like R. Yehudah, nor like Chachamim - like whom is it?
1. (Beraisa): If Temed was made from Tevel dregs or grape pieces, and its volume is the same as the water put in, it is exempt from Ma'aseros;
2. R. Yehudah said, it is liable.
i. The Mishnah cannot be Chachamim - they consider Temed to be water, even if it fermented!
ii. It cannot be like R. Yehudah - he considers Temed to be wine, even if it did not ferment!