Chulin 42 - DEFECTS THAT MAKE AN ANIMAL
1) DEFECTS THAT MAKE AN ANIMAL "TEREIFAH"
(a) (Mishnah): Any of the following defects makes an animal a Tereifah:
1. A puncture in any of the following - the Veshet; the membrane surrounding the brain; the heart (and the puncture reaches to the interior); the Kevah (last stomach); the gall bladder; the small intestines; the inner Keres (first stomach); the Masas (a middle stomach) or the Beis ha'Kosos (the connection between the Keres and Masas) (and the puncture extends to the outside);
2. The lungs were punctured or are lacking;
i. R. Shimon says, this is only if the puncture extends to the smaller branches.
3. The majority of the outer Keres was torn;
i. R. Yehudah says, this is for a small ox; for a large ox, it it only if one Tefach is torn;
4. The (majority of the width of the) Kaneh is cut;
5. The spine was broken, snapping the spinal cord;
6. The liver was totally removed;
7. The animal fell from the roof;
8. Most of the ribs were broken;
9. An animal Nidras (scratched and posioned) by a wolf;
i. R. Yehudah says, a small animal Nidras by a wolf, or (even) a large animal Nidras by a lion.
10. A small bird Nidras by a Netz (small hawk or cuckoo?), or a large bird Nidras by a Gas (large hawk).
(b) The rule is, any injury that will cause an animal to die makes it a Tereifah.
(c) (Gemara - Reish Lakish) Question: Where does the Torah hint at the concept of Tereifah?
(d) Objection: It explicitly says, "Do not eat the meat of a Tereifah"!
(e) (Clarification of question): Rather, where does the Torah hint that a Tereifah cannot live?
1. The end of the Mishnah implies that a Tereifah cannot live - what is the Tana's source?
(f) Answer: "This is the Chayah that you will eat" - implying that a Tereifah, which you may not eat, is not Chai (alive).
(g) Question: (There is a Tana who holds that a Tereifah can live -) what is the source for the Tana that argues?
(h) Answer #1: "*This* is the Chayah you may eat" - implying, there is another Chayah (living animal) you may not eat, namely a Tereifah.
1. Our Tana expounds "This" like Tana d'Vei R. Yishmael.
i. (Beraisa - Tana d'Vei R. Yishmael): "*This* is the Chayah you may eat" - Hash-m showed Moshe every species and told him which may be eaten.
2. Question: What is the other Tana's source for this?
(i) Rejection (and Answer to Question 2): No, all expound "This" like Tana d'Vei R. Yishmael.
(j) Answer #2: The other Tana learns from a different teaching of Tana d'Vei R. Yishmael.
1. (Beraisa - Tana d'Vei R. Yishmael): "Between the Chayah that may be eaten and the Chayah that may not be eaten" - there are living animals that may not be eaten, namely, the 18 Tereifos Hash-m taught to Moshe on Sinai.
2) THE 18 "TEREIFOS"
(a) Questions: There are Tereifos other than the 18 listed in the Mishnah!
1. There are another four (hinted at by the acronym BaShGaR) and another seven taught by Amora'im (these will be taught later)!
2. This is not difficult for the Tana of our Mishnah - he taught some Tereifos, and taught 'The rule is...' suggesting that there are others.
3. But Tana d'Vei R. Yishmael says that there are exactly 18!
(b) Question #1: ('Beis' of BaShGaR) - a *B*ehemah whose hind legs were cut above the knee is Tereifah! (The Gemara (76A) discusses if this refers to the higher or lower knee.)
(c) Answer #1: Tana d'Vei R. Yishmael holds like R. Shimon ben Elazar, who says that if the thigh is scalded (at the place of the cut), the animal can live.
(d) Objection: According to Tana d'Vei R. Yishmael, even an animal that can live can be Tereifah!
(e) Answer #2: Rather, Tana d'Vei R. Yishmael holds like R. Shimon ben Elazar, who says that this is not an (injury that makes an animal a) Tereifah.
(f) Question #2: ('Shin' of BaShGaR) - an animal whose *Sh*idra (spine) is lacking is Tereifah!
1. (Mishnah - Beis Shamai): A spine missing two vertebrae is incomplete (it does not have Tum'as Ohel);
2. Beis Hillel say, even if one is missing it is incomplete.
3. (Rav Yehudah): The same amount missing makes an animal Tereifah.
(g) Answer: Our Mishnah lists punctures in the Masas and Beis ha'Kosos separately - Tana d'Vei R. Yishmael counts them as one (so when we add an incomplete spine, his count totals 18).
(h) Question #3: (Gimel) - *G*ludah (an animal missing all its skin) is Tereifah.
(i) Answer: Tana d'Vei R. Yishmael holds like R. Meir, who says that this is not a Tereifah.
(j) Question #4: (Reish) - Cha*R*usah (an animal whose lungs dried up) is Tereifah.
(k) Answer: Our Tana listed a punctured gall bladder, he holds like R. Yosi b'Rebbi Yehudah - Tana d'Vei R. Yishmael holds that this is Kosher (and counts Charusah in place of it).
(l) Question #5: There are the seven Amora'ic teachings of Tereifos!
1. (Rav Masnah): A dislocated hip is Tereifah.
2. (Rachish bar Papa): An afflicted kidney is Tereifah.
3. (Rav Avira): Even though a Mishnah teaches that a missing spleen is Kosher, a punctured spleen is Tereifah.
4. (Rabah bar bar Chanah): If the Kaneh and Veshet were uprooted (Rashi; Tosfos - separated), it is Tereifah.
5. (Rabah bar bar Shilo): The following are Tereifos:
i. A rib was uprooted from the spine;
ii. Or, most of the skull was Nichbesah (bruised or crushed);
iii. Or, most of the flesh covering the majority of the Keres (the part not covered by the ribs) was torn.
(m) Answer #1: The Mishnah listed eight cases of punctures - Tana d'Vei R. Yishmael counts them as one, so with these seven teachings, his total is 18.
1. Question #1: If so, also the two cases of cuts in the Mishnah should count only as one (and his total will be 17)!
2. Question #2: Rav Avira's case should not add to the count, for his case is also a puncture!
(n) Answer: Earlier, we said that Tana d'Vei R. Yishmael is Machshir an animal with cut legs and Gludah - really, he agrees that these two are Tereifos.