Chulin 51 - A NEEDLE IN THE
1) A NEEDLE IN THE "BEIS HA'KOSOS"
(a) (Mishnah): The Masas or the Beis ha'Kosos (these are intermediate stomachs) was punctured...
(b) (Beraisa): If a needle was found in the wall of the Beis ha'Kosos:
1. If the wall is punctured on one side, it is Kosher; if it is punctured on both sides, it (the animal) is Tereifah.
2. If a drop of blood is found, it was punctured before slaughter (it is Tereifah); if no blood is found, it was punctured after slaughter (it is Kosher.)
(c) (If Reuven bought this animal, if it was already Tereifah, it was Mekach Ta'us (a mistaken sale), he returns the carcass and gets his money back.) If a scab formed, the puncture was at least three days before the slaughter;
1. If no scab formed, Reuven must prove that it was Tereifah when he bought it.
(d) Question: Why is this different than other punctures, they are Tereifah even if blood is not found!
(e) Answer: If there is nothing for the blood to stick to, it is washed away; here (if it was before slaughter), the blood sticks to the needle.
(f) (Rav Avira) Rebbi declared an animal Tereifah because a needle was found with one end in the wall of the Beis ha'Kosos.
1. He had turned the Beis ha'Kosos inside out and found a drop of blood on the needle.
2. Rebbi: The blood proves that the needle had gone all the way through; it later moved back.
2) CONCERN THAT LIMBS WERE CRUSHED
(a) (Mishnah): If it fell from the roof...
(b) (Rav Huna): If one left an animal on the roof, and later he finds it on the ground, we are not concerned that limbs were crushed.
(c) Ravina'a goat was on the roof; it looked through an opening in the roof and saw barley on the floor (in the house) and jumped to the floor.
(d) Question (Ravina): Why did Rav Huna say that we are not concerned when it jumped from the roof?
1. If it is because the animal softens the fall by dragging its forelegs on the wall - here, there was nothing to grasp, we are concerned!
2. If it is because the animal would not jump unless it estimated that it can survive the fall - here also, we are not concerned.
(e) Answer (Rav Ashi): The latter reason is correct.
(f) A sheep in Rav Chaviva's house was dragging its hind legs.
(g) (Rav Yeimar): This is due to a leg sickness, it is Kosher.
(h) Question (Ravina): Perhaps it is because the spinal cord snapped, and it is Tereifah!
(i) They checked it; indeed, the spinal cord had snapped.
(j) Nevertheless, the Halachah follows Rav Yeimar - leg sicknesses are common, a snapped spinal cord is not (so one need not check.)
(k) (Rav Huna): We are not concerned about rams that gore each other (lest their limbs were crushed);
1. Even if they are in pain, this is merely a fever.
2. If the animal fell to the ground, we are concerned.
(l) (Rav Menasheh): If a thief dropped rams over the wall, we are not concerned that their limbs were crushed.
1. This is because the thief drops them gently on their legs so they will be able to run.
(m) If the thief dropped them over the wall again to return them, surely we are concerned!
1. This is only if he returned them out of fear of being caught (perhaps he did not drop them gently);
2. If he returns them to repent, we are not concerned - surely, he wants to repent properly.
(n) (Rav Yehudah): If one hit an animal with a staff from the head to the tail, or from tail to head, since the entire backbone was hit, the blow was not intense in any one place, we are not concerned for crushed limbs.
1. If the end of the staff reached to the middle of the backbone, or if there are protrusions in the staff, we are concerned.
3) CONCERN THAT LIMBS WERE CRUSHED (cont.)
(a) (Rav Nachman): We are not concerned that the limbs of a newborn animal were crushed in delivery.
(b) Support (Rava - Beraisa): Even a baby of one day can become a Zav (through emissions from his Ever.)
1. If we would be concerned that limbs are crushed in birth, we would attribute the emission to the birth, and he would not be considered a Zav - "(An emission) from his flesh", not due to Ones (another cause.)
(c) Rejection: Perhaps only a baby born through Yotzei Dofen (Caesarean section) can become a Zav (for it is not pressured during birth.)
(d) Support (Beraisa): A calf born on Yom Tov may be slaughtered (and eaten) that same day.
(e) Rejection: The case is, it was a Yotzei Dofen.
(f) Support (Beraisa): All agree that if a Bechor was born blemished (on Yom Tov), it is Muchan (prepared (as opposed to Muktzeh), it may be slaughtered that day.)
1. Suggestion: Perhaps this is no support, it was a Yotzei Dofen.
2. Rejection: If so, even if it was unblemished, it would not be Kodesh!
3. (R. Yochanan): R. Shimon (who says that the Tum'like and Korban Yoledes apply to a Yotzei Dofen birth) agrees that a Yotzei Dofen (animal) cannot be a Korban.
(g) Rejection: The case is, the animal moved to stand (but if not, we would be concerned that its limbs were crushed.)
(h) (Rav Nachman): If an animal was thrown to the ground to be slaughtered, we are not concerned for crushed limbs.
(i) An ox fell and was whining from the pain; Rav Yitzchak bar Shmuel bar Marsa bought some of the meat.
1. Rabanan: How do you know that it is permitted?
2. Rav Yitzchak: Rav said, it digs its nails into the ground to soften the fall.
(j) (Rav Yehudah): If an animal fell:
1. If it stands up, one need not wait 24 hours before slaughtering it, but it must be checked;
2. If it walks, it need not be checked.
(k) (R. Chiya bar Ashi): In both cases, it must be checked.
(l) (R. Yirmeyah bar Acha): If it sticks out a foreleg, trying to stand, this is like standing;
1. If it sticks out a hind leg, trying to walk, this is like walking.
(m) (Rav Chisda): If it stirred itself to stand (even without sticking out a limb), this is like standing.
(n) (Ameimar): If an animal fell, the intestines must be checked.
(o) (Mar Zutra): The entire inside must be checked (i.e. including the ribs and vertebrae.)
(p) Question (Huna Mar bar brei d'Rav Nechemyah): Must the Kaneh and Veshet be checked (lest they were uprooted?)
(q) Answer (Rav Ashi): No, they are sturdy, we are not concerned.
4) A BIRD THAT FELL
(a) (Rav Yehudah): If a bird fell onto water, and it swims its own length, it is Kosher.
1. This is only if it swims upstream - if it goes downstream, perhaps the water carried it (we treat it like an animal that fell.)
2. In still water, it suffices if it swims in any direction.
3. Swimming downstream suffices if it goes faster than wood floating in the water.
(b) If a bird lands on any if the following, it has the law of a fallen animal:
1. A garment that was stretched out tightly; a net in which the ropes are close together; bundles of flax or combed flax or reeds; flax that was beaten but not shaken; stubble that comes off flax (unless it is very fine);
2. Moss, unless it was cut into strips; sifted ashes; coarse sand; dirt on the road; bundled straw; wheat, barley and related grains; clover; chickpeas.