Zevachim 73 - WHICH FIGS ARE
1) WHICH FIGS ARE "MA'ALEH"?
(a) Answer #1 (Rav Papa): (R. Yochanan explained the Tana of the Mishnah -) this Tana holds that *everything that* is normally counted is Mekadesh, even regarding a mid'Rabanan prohibition, like the Tana of the following Beraisa:
1. (Beraisa - R. Meir): If a Litra (measure) of (Terumah) figs was pressed onto the top of a barrel (or similar vessel) and it is not known which barrel:
i. R. Eliezer says that (even though we know that the Terumah figs are on top), we consider all the figs to be involved in the doubt - if there are at least 101 Litros of figs in the barrels, they are Ma'aleh the Terumah (Mevatel it - we take one Litra and treat it like Terumah, the rest is permitted like Chulin; if there are not 101 Litros, all are forbidden like Dimu'a (a mixture containing Terumah));
ii. R. Yehoshua says, (since we know that the Terumah is on top) if there are at least 101 tops (i.e. of barrels where the Terumah might be), they are Ma'aleh the Terumah; if not, the tops are forbidden (like Dimu'a), the rest is permitted.
2. R. Yehudah says:
i. R. Eliezer says that if there are at least 101 tops, they are Ma'aleh; if not, the tops are forbidden, the rest is permitted;
ii. R. Yehoshua says, even if there are 300 tops, they are not Ma'aleh (for figs are sometimes counted).
3. If they were pressed into a barrel but it is not known into which part of the barrel, all agree that all the figs combine to Ma'aleh the Terumah.
2) WHY MUST ALL THE ANIMALS DIE?
(a) Answer #2 (Rav Ashi): The Beraisa can even be like Chachamim - living animals are important, they are not Batel.
(b) Question: Why don't we remove animals from the mixture one by one (until only two remain, Halachah assumes that) each is from the majority (that are permitted)!
(c) Objection: If so, the prohibition would be considered Kavu'a, such cases are considered like an even doubt (we do not follow the majority)!
(d) Question: Rather, let us force them to separate from each other, each that separates is (presumably) from the majority!
(e) Answer #1 (Rava): Chachamim decreed not to do so, lest simultaneously each of (e.g.) 10 Kohanim will offer (the blood or Eimurim of) one of the animals, and this will be the majority of the remaining animals - presumably the forbidden animal is among them)!
1. Question: If (at the time of slaughter) each was assumed to be (from the majority, i.e.) permitted, this will not change later!
2. Answer (Rava): The concern is that simultaneously, each of 10 Kohanim will take an animal that separated from the mixture in order to offer it (and these 10 will comprise the majority, presumably the forbidden animal is among them).
(f) Objection: We could not coordinate that if we wanted to (surely, we need not be concerned for it)!
(g) Answer #2 (Rava): Chachamim decreed not to do so, lest someone take in a way (i.e. from the mixture) which is considered Kavu'a.
3) DOES "DICHUY" APPLY TO THE MIXTURE?
(a) (Rava): Since Chachamim forbade offering the animals (they are Nidchim, i.e. permanently disqualified), if any were offered, they are Pesulim.
(b) Question (Rav Huna bar Yehudah - Mishnah): If Chata'os and Olos ha'Of became mixed together, even if one was mixed with 10,000 of the other, all must be left to die;
1. If (there were equal numbers of Chata'os and Olos, and) a Kohen erred and offered all of them above (like Olas ha'Of), half are Kesherim (the Olos);
2. If he offered all of them below (like Chatas ha'Of), half are Kesherim;
3. If he offered half above and half below, all are Pesulim, perhaps all Olos were offered below and all Chata'os above.
4. (According to Rava, since it was forbidden to offer them, in all cases all should be Pesulim!)
(c) Answer: Rava's law is according to the opinion that a living animal can be Nidcheh, the Mishnah is according to the opinion that it cannot.
(d) Question: All agree that a slaughtered animal can be Nidcheh, yet R. Eliezer is Machshir (if one of a mixture was offered)!
1. (Mishnah - R. Eliezer): (If the limbs of a blemished Olah were mixed with limbs of Kosher Olos,) if one of the heads was offered (we assume that this was the blemished animal), we offer the rest of the heads.
(e) Answer: R. Eliezer holds like Chanan ha'Mitzri (who holds that even slaughtered animals are not Nidchim).
1. (Beraisa - Chanan ha'Mitzri): If the blood of the goat (to be offered in the Kodesh ha'Kodoshim on Yom Kipur) was collected and the "Se'ir ha'Mishtale'ach" died, we bring another goat to be the Se'ir ha'Mishtale'ach, the collected blood is still Kosher.