Zevachim 116 -
1) "KORBANOS" OF "BENEI NO'ACH"
(a) (Rav Huna): "Vayikach (No'ach) mi'Kol Behemah ha'Tehorah umi'Kol Of ha'Tahor" - Behemah [and Of] are understood simply, and Chayos are included in "Behemah";
(b) He offered males and females, Tam and blemished animals; but not animals missing a limb.
(c) Question (R. Elazar): What is the source that a Ben No'ach may not offer an animal missing a limb?
(d) Answer: "Umi'Kol ha'Chai" - the limbs of the animal must be Chai (intact).
(e) Answer #1: Perhaps this excludes a Treifah!
(f) Rejection: We already know this from "Lechayos Zera" (it must be able to reproduce).
(g) Question: This is according to the opinion that a Treifah cannot have children - according to the opinion that it can, how can we answer?
(h) Answer #2: We know to exclude Treifos from "Itach (with you, i.e. like you)".
(i) Question: Perhaps No'ach himself was Treifah!
(j) Answer #1: It says he was "Tamim".
1. Question: Perhaps this means, he was pure in his ways!
2. Answer: It already says that he was a Tzadik.
3. Question: Perhaps he was pure in his ways and Tzadik in his deeds!
(k) Answer #2: If so, Hash-m would not have asked him to bring animals (Treifos) like himself!
(l) Question: Since we exclude Treifos from "Itach", what do we learn from "Lechayos Zera"?
(m) Answer: One might have thought, the animals are merely for company (and sterile animals are acceptable) - Lechayos Zera teaches that they must be able to reproduce.
(n) (Rav Huna): He offered Tahor animals (and birds), not Tamei.
(o) Question: Before the Torah was given, there was no distinction!
(p) Answer (R. Shmuel bar Nachmani): 'Tahor' refers to an animal that had not mated with a different species.
(q) Question: How did he know which animals were 'Tahor'?
(r) Answer #1: We can answer as Rav Chisda explained (how he knew which species were (literally) Tehorim):
1. (Rav Chisda): No'ach passed the animals in front of the ark, if the ark accepted (seven and seven), he knew that it was a Tahor species.
(s) Answer #2 (R. Avahu): "*Veha'Ba'im* Zachar u'Nekevah" - the animals came by themselves.
2) MAY "BENEI NO'ACH" OFFER "SHELAMIM"?
(a) (Beraisa (from 115B)): Before the Mishkan was erected, all Korbanos offered were Olos.
(b) Inference: It was forbidden to offer Shelamim.
(c) Question: But it says (at Sinai, before the Mishkan) "Va'Yizbechu Zevachim Shelamim"!
(d) Correction: Rather, all (Yisraelim and Nochrim) were permitted to offer Olos. (But Shelamim were permitted only to Yisrael).
(e) Inference: Shelamim were never permitted to Nochrim.
(f) This is like the opinion that Benei No'ach never offered Shelamim.
1. (R. Elazar or R. Yosi bar Chanina): Benei No'ach offered Shelamim.
2. (The other of R. Elazar and R. Yosi bar Chanina): Benei No'ach did not offer Shelamim.
(g) The first opinion learns from "V'Hevel Hevi...*ume'Chelvehen*";
1. This refers to Shelamim, in which the Chelev is offered on the Mizbe'ach (but not the rest of the meat).
(h) The latter opinion learns from "Uri Tzafon u'Vo'i Seiman" - a nation (Nochrim) that only offers in the north (i.e. Olos) should awaken, and will come a nation (Yisrael) that also offers (Shelamim) in the south.
(i) Question: How does this opinion explain the first verse?
(j) Answer: "Ume'Chelvehen" teaches that he offered the fattest animals he had.
(k) Question: How does the first opinion explain the latter verse?
(l) Answer: It refers to the gathering of the exiles.
(m) Question: "Gam Ata Titen b'Yadeinu *Zevachim* v'Olos" (this must refer to Shelamim, and we will offer it on behalf of Paro!)
(n) Answer: 'Zevachim' are Chulin animals to be eaten, Olos are Korbanos.
(o) Question: But it says "Vayikach Yisro...Olah u'Zevachim"!
(p) Answer #1: That was after Matan Torah (he was a full Yisrael when he offered them.)
(q) Question: This is according to the opinion that Yisro came after Matan Torah - according to the opinion that he came before Matan Torah, how can we answer?
1. (Benei R. Chiya or R. Yehoshua ben Levi): Yisro came before Matan Torah.
2. (The other of Benei R. Chiya and R. Yehoshua ben Levi): Yisro came after Matan Torah.
(r) Answer: The former opinion holds that Benei No'ach may offer Shelamim.
(s) Tana'im argue about when Yisro came.
1. (Beraisa) Question: "Vayishma Yisro" - what did he hear that prompted him to come to convert?
2. Answer #1 (R. Yehoshua): He heard about the war with Amalek, which is mentioned just before this.
3. Answer #2 (R. Eliezer ha Moda'i): He heard about Matan Torah;
i. "Uv'Heichalo Kulo Omer Kavod" - when the Torah was given, Hash-m's voice was heard in the entire world, all the Nochri kings trembled and sang Shirah;
ii. The kings: Perhaps a flood is coming to the world - "Hash-m La'Mabul Yashav"!
iii. Bil'am: No, He already swore not to flood the (entire) world again.
iv. The kings: Perhaps he swore not to flood it with water, but he will flood it with fire - "Ki b'Esh Hash-m Nishpat"!
v. Bil'am: No, He already swore not to destroy all flesh.
vi. The kings: If so, what is this great noise we hear?
vii. Bil'am: He is giving to His children (Yisrael) a great treasure that has been hidden in His treasure-house 974 generations before He created the world - "Hash-m Oz l'Amo Yiten".
viii.The kings: "Hash-m Yevarech Es Amo ba'Shalom".
4. Answer #3 (R. Eliezer): He heard about Kri'as Yam Suf:
i. It says, "Va'Yhi chi'Shmo'a Kol Malchei ha'Emori (that Hash-m dried up the Yarden to enable Benei Yisrael to pass...), and Rachav (who helped Pinchus and Kalev when Yehoshua sent them to spy out Eretz Yisrael) said "Shamanu Es Asher Hovish Hash-m Es Yam Suf..."
5. Question: The first verse (cited) continues "V'Lo Hayah Vam Od Ru'ach", but after the latter it says "V'Lo Kamah Od Ru'ach b'Ish"!
6. Answer: After Kri'as Yam Suf, the men were so broken that they could not have an erection.
7. Question: How did Rachav know?
8. Answer: It was taught, every noble (in Eretz Yisrael at the time) had relations with her;
i. She was a harlot at the age of 10 when Yisrael left Miztrayim, she had relations all 40 years that Yisrael were in the Midbar.
ii. At the age of 50, she converted - she reasoned that the merit of saving the spies through the rope, window and flax (the Medrash replaces 'flax' with wall) would atone for having used these for Zenus.
3) "SHECHUTEI CHUTZ" IS PERMITTED FOR "NOCHRIM"
(a) (Even) nowadays, Nochrim may offer Korbanos on a Bamah.
(b) Question: What is the source of this?
(c) Answer (Beraisa): "Daber El Benei Yisrael" - Shechutei Chutz only applies to Yisrael, Nochrim may build Bamos and offer on them as they wish.
(d) (R. Yakov bar Acha): It is forbidden to help them (offer outside the Mikdash) or to be a Shali'ach for them.
(e) (Rava): It is permitted to teach them how to offer.
1. The mother of Shevor Malka (the Persian king) sent a Korban for Rava to offer to Hash-m. Rava told Rav Safra and Rav Acha bar Huna to get two Nochri youths of the same age to offer it l'Shem Shamayim, where the sea deposits mud, using wood that was never used and a flame from new stones.
(f) Question (Abaye): You hold like R. Elazar ben Shamu'a;
1. (Beraisa - R. Elazar ben Shamu'a): Just like the Mizbe'ach was never used by a person (for Chulin), also the wood must not have been used before.
2. But R. Elazar agrees that new wood is not needed when offering on a Bamah!
i. (Beraisa) Contradiction: When David bought Arnon's Goren (threshing floor) to build the Beis ha'Mikdash there, the verse says that he gave 600 golden Shekalim - but another verse says that he bought the Goren and cattle for 50 silver Shekalim!
ii. Answer #1: David collected from each Shevet a quantity of silver Shekalim worth 50 gold Shekalim, from all Yisrael this amounted to 600 gold Shekalim.
iii. Answer #2 (Rebbi): He paid 50 for the cattle, wood and place of the Mizbe'ach; he paid 600 for the place of the entire Beis ha'Mikdash.
iv. R. Elazar ben Shamu'a says, we learn this from "Ha'Bakar l'Olah veha'Morigim u'Chlei ha'Bakar la'Etzim" (since they would be offered on a Bamah, used wood was acceptable)!
(g) Answer (Rava): The vessels were new (they had never been used).
(h) Question: What are "Morigim"?
(i) Answer (Ula): This is the Tarbal bed (mentioned in Maseches Parah).
(j) Question: What is a Tarbal bed?
(k) Answer (Abaye): It is a wooden block with sharp grooves for threshing grain - we learn from "L'Morag Charutz Chadash Ba'al Pipiyos Tadush".
(l) Contradiction (Rava): One verse says that David gave 600 golden Shekalim, another verse says that he paid 50 silver Shekalim!
(m) Answer: He collected 50 Shekalim from each Shevet, in all, 600.
(n) Question: But one verse says that they were golden Shekalim, the other says that they were silver!
(o) Answer: He collected silver Shekalim, they were worth 600 gold Shekalim.
4) "MACHANOS" IN THE "MIDBAR"
(a) (Mishnah): Kodshim Kalim were eaten within Machaneh Yisrael.
(b) (Rav Huna): They could be eaten wherever Yisrael were.
(c) Question (Rav Nachman): This implies that this was permitted even outside Machaneh Yisrael - but this is wrong, there were (restrictions of) Machanos in the Midbar!
1. (Beraisa): Just like there were Machanos in the Midbar, there was a Machaneh in Yerushalayim;
2. From Yerushalayim to Har ha'Bayis was Machaneh Yisrael; from Har ha'Bayis to Sha'ar Nikanor was Machaneh Levi; past Sha'ar Nikanor was Machaneh Shechinah;
3. Sha'ar Nikanor corresponds to the Kela'im (curtains around the Azarah) in the Midbar.
(d) Correction: Rav Huna meant, they could be eaten in all *places* (Rashi's text) of Machaneh Yisrael (i.e. when the Machanos moved to another place, Benei Yisrael took Kodshim with them, they remained Kosher.)
(e) Objection: This is obvious!
(f) Answer: One might have thought, it is considered Yotzei (as if they left their place) - Rav Huna teaches, this is not so.
(g) Suggestion: Perhaps it is considered Yotzei!
(h) Answer: "V'Nasa Ohel Mo'ed" - even though it traveled, it is considered Ohel Mo'ed (there is no Pesul of Yotzei.)