ON WHICH HAND ARE
1) ON WHICH HAND ARE "TEFILIN" WORN?
(a) (Beraisa): (Tefilin are tied on) "Yadcha" - the left arm.
(b) Suggestion: Perhaps it refers to the right arm!
(c) Rejection: It says "Af Yadi Yosdah Eretz vi'Mini Tipchah Shamayim", and "Yadah la'Yased Tishlachnah vi'Minah Lehalmus Amelim", and "Lamah Sashiv Yadcha vi'Minecha mi'Kerev Chekcha Chale" - Yemin refers to the right, Yad (unspecified) refers to the left.
(d) R. Yosi ha'Chorem: Sometimes 'Yad' refers to the right - "Va'Yar Yosef Ki Yashis Aviv Yad Yemino"!
1. The first Tana holds that we never find that 'Yad' refers to the right unless it specifies so.
(e) R. Noson says, we have a different source - "U'Kshartem...U'Chsavtam", the Torah equates tying (Shel Yad) with writing (a Mezuzah) - just as we use the right (more skilled) hand to write, we use it to tie;
1. (Since a hand cannot tie Tefilin on itself,) this teaches that Tefilin is tied *on* the left hand.
(f) Question: What is R. Yosi's source that Tefilin is tied on the left hand?
(g) Answer: He learns like R. Noson.
(h) (Rav Ashi): (In one place) "Yadcha (your hand)" is written (abnormally) with a 'Hei' at the end, enabling us to read 'Yad Kehah' (the weak hand). (Alternatively - such words are (usually) feminine, suggesting the weaker hand.)
(i) Question (R. Aba): 'Hei' is sometimes interchangeable with 'Ches' - perhaps we should read it 'Yad Ko'ach' (the strong hand)!
(j) Answer (Rav Ashi): Since we can expound the way it is written (with a 'Hei'), we do not interchange it with 'Ches'.
(k) Tana'im argue about Rav Ashi's way of learning:
1. (Beraisa):"Yadcha" is written with a 'Hei' - this teaches that Shel Yad is tied on the left hand.
2. Others say, "Yadcha" includes a Gidem (someone whose hand was cut off, but his upper arm is intact).
(l) (Another Beraisa): Someone missing his upper arm is exempt from hand Tefilin;
(m) Others say, "Yadcha" includes a Gidem.
(n) (Beraisa #1): A left handed person puts Tefilin on his right hand, this is his Smol (weak hand).
(o) Contradiction (Beraisa #2): A lefty puts Tefilin on his left hand.
(p) Resolution (Abaye): Beraisa #2 refers to an ambidextrous person.
2) WHERE ARE HEAD-"TEFILIN" WORN?
(a) (Tana d'Vei Menasheh): "Al Yadecha" - this refers to Kibores (the fleshy part of the upper arm); "Bein Einecha" - this refers to the Kodkod (top of the head).
(b) Question: Where on the Kodkod are Tefilin worn?
(c) Answer (D'vei R. Yanai): (Up to) the part of the head that is soft in a baby.
(d) Question (Flimo): If someone has two heads, on which does he wear Tefilin?
(e) Rebbi: (Rashi - you mock me! Rashba (brought in Gilyon ha'Shas) - you doubt the words of Chachamim, who say that a Treifah cannot live more than a year, the Mitzvah would never apply to him!) Choose your punishment - exile yourself or you will be excommunicated!
(f) A man entered; he said that his (firstborn) son was born with two heads, and asked how much he must pay to redeem him.
(g) (An elder -Beraisa): You must pay 10 Shekalim (five for each head).
(h) Question: This contradicts Rami bar Chama's teaching!
1. (Rami bar Chama) Suggestion: "Pado Sifdeh" (the verb is doubled) includes a baby that was torn (Rashi - and died; Tosfos - became Treifah) within 30 days, we must redeem him!
2. Rejection "Ach" - this distinguishes (some babies are not redeemed - Rashi - those that cannot live; Tosfos - Treifos).
(i) Answer: (The Tana of the Beraisa learned from "Chameshes Shekalim la'Gulgoles" that one must redeem every head) - we must say that "Ach" only excludes a baby that died already (Rashi; Rashba - "...la'Gulgoles" teaches that one who has an extra head is fitting to live for a long time, unlike other Treifos).
3) WHERE WE WEAR HAND-"TEFILIN"
(a) Question: Tana d'vei Menasheh taught that "Al Yadecha" refers to Kibores - what is his source?
(b) Answer (Beraisa): "Al Yadecha" - this refers to the upper arm;
1. Suggestion: Perhaps it refers to the palm!
2. Rejection #1: The Torah commands to wear Tefilin on the hand and head - just as the latter is near the top of the head, the former is near the top of the arm.
3. Rejection #2 (R. Eliezer): We learn from "V'Hayah Lecha l'Os" - hand Tefilin is visible to you (the wearer), not to others (for it is covered by clothing).
4. Rejection #3 (R. Yitzchak): We learn from "V'Samtem Es Devarai Eleh Al Levavchem...u'Kshartem" - Tefilin must be next to the heart.
(c) R. Chiya brei d'Rav Avya would wear Shel Yad even with his heart.
(d) Rav Ashi had a wound, his shirt was torn (to avoid aggravating the wound), his Tefilin could be seen through it.
(e) Ameimar: Don't you agree that V'Hayah Lecha l'Os", Shel Yad must be visible to you, not to others?!
(f) Rav Ashi: That means, it is worn in a place on the arm normally covered.
(g) Question: The Beraisa taught 'Just as head Tefilin is worn near the top of the head...' - what is the source of this?
(h) Answer (Beraisa): "Bein Einecha" - this is (near) the top of the head.
1. Suggestion: Perhaps it is literally between the eyes!
2. Rejection: It also says "Lo Sasimu Karachah *Bein Einechem* la'Mes" - just as the prohibition to tear out hair applies on top of the head (where hair grows), also the Mitzvah of Tefilin.
3. R. Yehudah says, we have a different source - we equate Shel Rosh to Shel Yad:
i. Just as Shel Yad is (on the flesh) in a place where only one kind of hair (i.e. white) is Metamei a Tzaru'a (makes him a Metzora Muchlat), also Shel Rosh;
ii. This cannot be between the eyes, for yellow hairs are Metamei in (Tzara'as in) the eyebrows (like the law of Tzara'as where hair grows on the head), and white hairs are Metamei in the rest of the area.
4) IS EACH CORNER A SEPARATE "MITZVAH"?
(a) (Mishnah): The four Tzitzis (sets of strings on each of the four corners of a garment) are Me'akev each other, because they are all one Mitzvah.
(b) Question: What is the difference between the first Tana and R. Yishmael (who says that each of the four is a Mitzvah by itself)?
(c) Answer #1 (Rav Yosef): They disagree about a linen garment. (If there are strings of Techeiles (which must be woolen) on some but not all four corners, the first Tana says that one who wears it transgresses Kilayim, R. Yishmael exempts (since every string of Techeiles is a Mitzvah, this overrides the Lav of Kilayim).)
(d) Answer #2 (Rava bar Ahina): They disagree about a garment with five (or more) corners. (All expound that one must attach Tzitzis - the first Tana holds that there is one Mitzvah to attach strings on four corners, R. Yishmael holds that there is a Mitzvah to attach strings on every corner.)
(e) Answer #3 (Ravina): They argue whether or not Rav Huna's law applies (if there are strings on some but not all four corners):
1. (Rav Huna): If invalid Tzitzis are on a garment, one who enters (or walks four Amos in) Reshus ha'Rabim while wearing it brings a Chatas (if he was Shogeg).
(f) (Rav Shisha brei d'Rav Idi): If one cut off (on a diagonal) one of the four corners of his garment (this makes it five-cornered), he did not exempt it from Tzitzis.
(g) (Rav Mesharshiya): If one folded his garment and stuck it together (so it will stay that way, and put Tzitzis on the (current) four corners), this does not suffice.
(h) Question: What is the reason?
(i) Answer: Surely, it will later come open - we consider it as if it is open now, the corners of the material are the real corners.
(j) Support (Mishnah): If material was folded to make a pouch, even though it holds things, it is Tahor (since it will later come open, it is not considered a vessel), except for those of Aravim (for they normally use such pouches).
(k) (Rav Dimi of Neharda'a): If one folded the corners of his garment (making them round) and sewed them (so they will stay that way), he did not exempt it from Tzitzis.
(l) Question: What is the reason?
(m) Answer: Since he did not cut off the extra material, this shows that he plans to later undo the stitching, we considered it as if the corners are still right-angled.
(n) (Mishnah - R. Yishmael): Each of the four is a Mitzvah by itself.
(o) (Rav Yehudah): The Halachah follows R. Yishmael.
(p) The Halachah does not follow him.
(q) Version #1: On the Shabbos of the Regel (before the festival, when they expound laws of the festival), Ravina noticed that a corner of Mar bar Rav Ashi's garment (with the Tzitzis) had snapped off; he did not tell him until Mar bar Rav Ashi reached his house.
1. Mar bar Rav Ashi: Had you told me earlier, I would have taken off my garment right away!
2. Ravina: That would be embarrassing (to walk home without your garment) - Kavod ha'Briyos (avoiding disgrace) overrides a Lav (walking in Reshus ha'Rabim wearing a garment with invalid Tzitzis)!
3. Mar bar Rav Ashi: Rav bar Sheva explained, it only overrides the Lav of Lo Sasur (commanding us to follow mid'Rabanan laws).
(r) Version #2: Ravina immediately told Mar bar Rav Ashi that a corner of his garment had snapped off.
1. Mar bar Rav Ashi: Do you think I must take off my garment right away? Kavod ha'Briyos overrides a Lav!
2. Question: But Rav bar Sheva explained, it only overrides the Lav of Lo Sasur!
3. Answer: Mar bar Rav Ashi was not walking in Reshus ha'Rabim, rather, in a Karmelis, where the prohibition to carry is only mid'Rabanan.