Menachos 40 - LINEN GARMENTS
1) LINEN GARMENTS
(a) (Beraisa - Beis Shamai): A Sadin (linen garment) is exempt from Tzitzis;
(b) Beis Hillel obligate it.
(c) R. Eliezer bar Tzadok: But anyone who puts Techeiles on a Sadin in Yerushalayim is Masmiha (astounds all who see him)! (He argues with the first Tana, who says that Beis Hillel obligate; alternatively, he disagrees concerning Beis Shamai's opinion - if a Sadin was exempt, one who puts Techeiles on it transgresses (Kilayim), he does not merely astound!)
(d) Rebbi: (If it really is obligated), why did Chachamim forbid putting Tzitzis (some say - Techeiles) on it?
(e) R. Eliezer bar Tzadok: This is because (some) people are ignorant (they do not know that the Mitzvah overrides the Lav, they will think that Kilayim is always permitted).
(f) Question (Rabah bar bar Chana): Why didn't Chachamim tell 10 people to publicly wear it (to publicize the law that Kilayim in Tzitzis is permitted)?
(g) Answer (Rava): All the more so, this will make ignoramuses think that Kilayim is always permitted!
(h) Question: Why didn't Chachamim publicly teach that Kilayim is permitted only for the Mitzvah of Techeiles?
(i) Answer #1: People will wear (wool) Tzitzis dyed with Kala Ilan (a sap whose color resembles Techeiles).
1. Question: What is wrong if they do - even though they do not fulfill the Mitzvah of Techeiles, they fulfill the Mitzvah of Lavan!
2. Answer: Since the Mitzvah of Lavan can be fulfilled with linen strings (without transgressing Kilayim), the Mitzvah does not override Kilayim.
i. (Reish Lakish): If one can fulfill an Ase without transgressing a Lav, he must; if not, the Ase overrides the Lav.
3. Version #1 - Question: Chachamim should have enacted that people must check Techeiles in the pots in which it is cooked, by inserting a sample cloth!
4. Answer: They did not, for once Techeiles in the pot is used to dye a sample (Tosfos (42B Mishum) - not for the sake of the Mitzvah), it is invalid for the Mitzvah!
5. Question: Letters should be sent out (instructing to put a little Techeiles in an eggshell and test it, to avoid disqualifying the entire pot)!
6. Version #2 - Question: Chachamim should have enacted that people who buy Techeiles strings must check them (with alum and sourdough, Daf 42B)!
7. Answer: This would not help, perhaps the strings were made from test cloths (to see if the Techeiles was cooked properly, they were not dyed Lishmah).
8. Question: Letters should be sent out informing people that the strings must be dyed Lishmah (so the dyers will discard test cloths)! (End of Version #2)
9. Answer: People do not heed such letters (Rashi; R. Gershom - perhaps someone will not see the letter).
10. Objection (Rava): When Chachamim Me'aber (Rashi - add a month to the year; R. Gershom - add a day to Elul or Adar), we rely on letters to inform people, one who ignores them might eat on (the true) Yom Kipur or eat Chametz on Pesach, which are Chayavei Kerisus - all the more so, we can rely on them regarding the Ase of Techeiles!
(j) Answer #2 (Rava, and R. Zeira): Chachamim forbade a Sadin, lest it tear within three fingers of the corner. (Rashi - perhaps it will be fixed with linen threads, and two such threads will be left hanging on the corner, for the sake of Lavan, but they are invalid, for they were not attached l'Shem Tzitzis; Tosfos - perhaps it will tear after the Tzitzis were attached, disqualifying them, and the garment will be fixed);
1. Since the strings were there before the corner was fixed, they are invalid on account of Ta'aseh v'Lo Min ha'Asuy (we must fulfill the Mitzvah when attaching Tzitzis - here, the Tzitzis were attached before the corner was finished).
2. R. Zeira took the Tzitzis off his Sadin (on account of this decree).
(k) Answer #3 (Rav Zeira): Chachamim decreed against a Sadin on account of a night garment;
1. Version #1 (Rashi, Tosfos): Since there is no Mitzvah to put (Tzitzis or) Techeiles on a night garment, one who wears it transgresses Kilayim
2. Version #2 (Rambam): Since the Mitzvah does not apply at night, one who wears it at night transgresses Kilayim
3. (Tosfos - Rav Zeira is not *R.* Zeira; Rashba - R. Zeira gave this answer when he was in Bavel, before he got (Semichah in Eretz Yisrael and) the title 'Rebbi'.)
2) CONDITIONS OF ATTACHING THE "TZITZIS"
(a) (Rava, and R. Zeira): If a garment is made of cloth and the corners are of skin, one must put Tzitzis on the corners;
(b) Question: What is the reason?
(c) Answer: The essence of the garment must be considered a 'Beged'.
(d) (Rav Achai): It only depends on the corners - if they are made of cloth, one must put Tzitzis on them.
(e) (Rava): If one put Tzitzis on the three corners of an unfinished garment, then finished the garment, the Tzitzis are invalid on account of Ta'aseh v'Lo Min ha'Asuy.
(f) Question (Beraisa): Tzadikim of old would put Tzitzis (on two corners) once they had woven the three fingers (width or length) of the garment. (According to Rava, this is invalid, for the garment is not yet large enough to require Tzitzis, and it lacks two corners (of the final garment)!)
(g) Answer: It should say, they would put Tzitzis (on all four corners) once they were within three fingers of finishing the garment (for the (corners of the) outer edge will be considered part of the (final) corners, the last material will merely add on to the existing corners).
(h) Question: Are we really concerned for Ta'aseh v'Lo Min ha'Asuy?!
1. (R. Zeira): If one attached Tzitzis to a garment which already had Kosher Tzitzis, the latter are valid (Rashi; according to the Rosh - even though the first three (of the second set) were not valid when attached, for the first set is not Batul until all four of the new set are attached!)
(i) Answer (Rava): Since he transgresses Bal Tosif (the prohibition to add to Mitzvos), attaching the second set is not considered an action (so when he later cuts the first set, it is as if he *then* attaches the second set, he fulfills the Mitzvah when attaching them)!
(j) Objection (Rav Papa): If he does not intend to add to the Mitzvah, rather, to use the new Tzitzis and annul the first ones, he does not transgress Bal Tosif, attaching the second set is an action, Ta'aseh v'Lo Min ha'Asuy should apply!