Menachos 42 - THE
2) THE "SHI'UR" OF "TZITZIS"
(a) Support: We must say so, for it says 'similarly, there is no Shi'ur of a Lulav' - this cannot mean that there is no Shi'ur at all!
1. (Mishnah): If a Lulav is three Tefachim (and an additional Tefach) that rustles when shaken, it is Kosher.
2. We must say, there is no maximum length of a Lulav, but there is a minimum;
3. Likewise, there is no maximum length of Tzitzis, but there is a minimum!
(b) (Beraisa): Tzitzis refers to the Anaf (the strings that hang straight) - "Ya'Yikacheni b'Tzitzis Roshi".
(c) (Abaye): The strings must be separated like the Bluris of Nochrim (hair grown long for the sake of idolatry - they are tied near the head, and separate away from the head).
(d) (Beraisa): If one attached strings on the corner (R. Gershom - without distancing three Etzba'os) or on the thick thread on the edge, it is Kosher;
(e) R. Eliezer ben Yakov says, both of these are Pasul.
(f) Question: Like which Tana does Rav hold?
1. (Rav): Tzitzis must hang over the corner.
(g) Answer: He holds like R. Eliezer ben Yakov.
(h) (R. Yakov): One must distance the Tzitzis from the corner a Godel (Rashi - from the end of the thumb until the first knuckle; R. Gershom - the entire length of the thumb, this equals three Etzba'os).
(i) We need the teachings of R. Yakov and Rav Papa (end of 41B):
1. Rav Papa gave the maximum distance (three Etzba'os) from the corner - one might have thought, it can be as close as desired!
2. R. Yakov gave the minimum distance from the corner - one might have thought, it can be as far as desired!
(j) The corner of Ravina's garment tore, the Tzitzis was no longer a Godel from the corner.
1. Rav Sama (to Ravina): Do you disagree with R. Yakov's teaching?!
2. Ravina: That only applies when attaching the Tzitzis.
3. Rav Sama was embarrassed. Rav Ashi comforted him - people from Eretz Yisrael (such as Ravina) have twice the Chachmah of people of Bavel.
(k) Rav Acha bar Yakov folded four strings, and put the folded ends through the corner; he then put the eight ends through the folded loops;
1. He requires Gedilim (four strings) in the place of Pesil (where they are folded, making eight - Rashi (see Ma'adanei Yom Tov on the Rosh); Tosfos (38A, ha'Techeiles at the end) explains, he put four doubled strings of Lavan, and four of Techeiles. Others explain, Gedilim itself connotes eight - see Shitah, Bach on the Rif.)
(l) R. Yirmeyah mi'Difti folded eight strings, and put the folded ends through the corner; he did not put the 16 ends through the loops;
(m) Mar brei d'Ravina did as we do (he put four strings (not folded) through the corner.
3) DO WE BLESS ON MAKING "TZITZIS"?
(a) Rav Ada bar Ahavah made a Brachah on making Tzitzis.
1. Rav Nachman: this is wrong - Rav taught, we do not bless on making Tzitzis.
(b) Version #1 - Contradiction (Rav Chisda): But Rav Yehudah cited Rav to say that a Nochri cannot make Tzitzis, because it says "Daber El Benei Yisrael v'Asu Lahem Tzitzis" - Yisraelim can make Tzitzis, not Nochrim!
1. Question: What is the contradiction?
2. Answer (Rav Yosef): Rav Chisda holds that a Yisrael blesses precisely on Mitzvos a Nochri cannot do.
3. Question: This is not always true - a Nochri can circumcise, but we bless on it!
i. (Beraisa - R. Meir): If there is not a Yisrael that can circumcise, a Nochri should circumcise, not a Kusi;
ii. R. Yehudah says, a Kusi should circumcise, not a Nochri.
4. One who circumcises blesses '...v'Tzivanu Al ha'Milah'!
(c) Answer: This is not difficult for Rav - he holds that a Nochri cannot circumcise!
1. Question: What is the source that a Nochri cannot circumcise?
2. Answer #1 (Daro bar Papa citing Rav): "V'Ata Es Brisi Tishmor".
3. Answer #2 (R. Yochanan): "Himol Yimol" - one who is circumcised will circumcise others.
(d) Question: Sukah supports Rav Chisda's rule, but Tefilin refutes it!
1. (Beraisa): A Sukah is Kosher even if it was made by or for Nochrim, women, animals, or Kusim, as long as it has the proper amount of Schach;
2. A Yisrael who builds a Sukah does not bless (on building it).
i. (Beraisa): A Yisrael who builds a Sukah blesses 'Shehecheyanu'; when he dwells in it, he blesses '... v'Tzivanu Leshev ba'Sukah'.
ii. He does not bless 'To make a Sukah'.
3. (R. Chinena): A Sefer Torah, Tefilin or Mezuzah written by any of the following is Pasul - a (Nochri) Min (even though he knows how to write it), Kusi, Nochri, slave, woman, child, or Mumar (idolater, or one who denies the Mitzvos), "U'Kshartam...U'Chsavtam" - only one who is commanded (and believes in) the Mitzvah of Tefilin is Kosher to write.
4. A Yisrael who writes Tefilin does not bless:
i. (R. Chiya brei d'Rav Huna): We bless '...v'Tzivanu Lehani'ach Tefilin' on Shel Yad, and (some say - if he talked in between or cannot wear Shel Yad) 'Al Mitzvas Tefilin' on Shel Rosh!
ii. There is no blessing for writing Tefilin.
(e) Answer: We bless on a Mitzvah which is final (e.g. circumcision), even if Nochrim can do it;
1. We do not bless on a Mitzvah which is not final (e.g. writing Tefilin, the final Mitzvah is wearing them), even if Nochrim cannot do it;
(f) Regarding Tzitzis, the Amora'im argue whether it is a Chovas Talis or Chovas Adam. (Rav Chisda holds that it is Chovas Talis - therefore, attaching Tzitzis is the final Mitzvah, a Nochri may not do it, so Yisraelim should bless on it; Rav Nachman holds that it is Chovas Adam, the final Mitzvah is wearing it, therefore a Nochri may attach the Tzitzis, so Yisraelim do not bless on this.)
(g) Version #2 - Rav Mordechai - (Rav Yehudah citing Rav): A Nochri can make Tzitzis - "Daber El Benei Yisrael *v'Asu* Lahem Tzitzis", others will make Tzitzis for Yisrael.
(h) (Rav Yehudah): If Tzitzis were made from excess strands on the end of the garment, they are Pasul (Rashi - on account of Ta'aseh v'Lo Min ha'Asuy; Tosfos - they were not attached Lishmah);
1. If they were made from Sisin (a certain plant), they are Kosher (even though they were not spun Lishmah);
(i) (Shmuel): Even from Sisin, they are Pasul, Tzitzis must be spun Lishmah.
(j) Rav and Shmuel argue like the following Tana'im:
1. (Beraisa): If Tefilin were covered with gold or with hide of a Tamei animal, they are Pasul;
2. If they were covered with hide of a Tahor animal, they are Kosher, even if it was not tanned Lishmah.
3. R. Shimon ben Gamliel says, they are Pasul - the leather must be tanned Lishmah.
(k) Question (Abaye): How do you dye Techeiles threads?
(l) Answer (Rav Shmuel bar Rav Yehudah): We take the blood of the Chilazon (a special fish) and cook it with dying ingredients such as alum;
1. To see if it finished cooking, we take some in an eggshell, and dye a tuft of wool in it. We spill out the dye in the eggshell and burn the tuft.
(m) We learn three laws from this:
1. A dyed sample is Pasul (for Techeiles), the dying must be Lishmah, if the sample dye would be returned to the pot it would Posel all the dye inside.
(n) Question: A dyed sample is Pasul *because* dying must be Lishmah (these are not independent laws)!
(o) Answer (Rav Ashi): Indeed, the second law is merely the reason for the first, we learn only two laws.
(p) Tana'im argue about the third law.
1. (Beraisa - R. Chanina ben Gamliel): If a sample was dyed in a pot, all the remaining dye is Pasul - "Kalil Techeiles" (Rashi - nothing may be dyed previous with the Techeiles (Rashba - for this weakens it); Tosfos - because some of the dye absorbed in the sample (which was Lo Lishmah) is reabsorbed into the pot);
2. (The verse refers to Bigdei Kehunah, the same applies to Techeiles in Tzitzis.)
3. R. Yochanan ben Dehavai is Machshir - "U'*Shni* Tola'as" (we read this like Sheni, a second-hand absorption of red dye, the same applies to Techeiles).