Menachos 73 - KOHANIM MAY NOT TRADE PORTIONS
1) KOHANIM MAY NOT TRADE PORTIONS
(a) Question: We need this verse for the following teaching!
1. (Beraisa) Question: From where do we know that Menachos may not be traded for Zevachim?
2. Answer: "V'Chol Minchah...l'Chol Benei Aharon Tihyeh".
3. Suggestion: Perhaps Menachos may not be traded for Zevachim, because a (moderately) poor person never brings a Minchah in place of an animal, but Menachos may be traded for birds, because a very poor person brings a Minchah in place of birds!
4. Rejection: "V'Chol Na'aseh b'Marcheshes l'Chol Benei Aharon Tihyeh".
5. Suggestion: Perhaps Menachos may not be traded for birds, because birds have blood and Menachos are made of flour, but birds may be traded for animals, because both have blood!
6. Rejection: "V'Al Machavas l'Chol Benei Aharon Tihyeh" (the verse is not needed to teach about Menachos, it is expounded to teach about other offerings).
7. Suggestion: Perhaps birds may not be traded for animals, because animals require a Kli (for slaughter; alternatively, for Kabalah), birds do not (the Kohen does Melikah (and Haza'ah and Mitzuy) with his bare hand), but Menachos may be traded for other Menachos, since the hand is used for (Kemitzah of) both of them!
8. Rejection: "V'Chol Minchah Velulah va'Shemen...l'Chol Benei Aharon Tihyeh".
9. Suggestion: Perhaps (Menachos cooked in) Marcheshes and Machavas may not be traded for each other, for the former are soft and the latter are hard, but Menachos of the same consistency may be traded for each other!
10. Rejection: "...Va'Charevah l'Chol Benei Aharon Tihyeh".
11. Suggestion: Perhaps Kohanim may not trade Kodshei Kodashim, but they may trade Kodshim Kalim.
12. Rejection: "Ish k'Achiv...V'Im Al Todah" - just as they may not trade (Menachos which are) Kodshei Kodashim, they may not trade Kodshim Kalim.
13. "Ish" - a man receives a share, even a Ba'al Mum, a minor does not receive, even if he is Tam.
(b) Answer: The Beraisa learns from 'Kol', Chizkiyah learns from 'Minchah'.
(c) Question: We need this verse for R. Yosi b'Rebbi Yehudah's teaching (that a Minchah may not be half Chalos and half Rekikim! Tosfos - even though we explain R. Shimon's opinion, and the Gemara in Kidushin says that R. Yehudah taught this Beraisa, and both of them argue with R. Yosi b'Rebbi Yehudah, we ask whether R. Yosi can agree with the Beraisa.)
(d) Answer: R. Yosi b'Rebbi Yehudah learns from the extra 'Vov' in "v'Chol".
(e) Answer #2 (to Question 4:k, 72B - Ravina): He learns like Levi:
1. (Beraisa - Levi): "Kol Korbanam (...Lecha Hu ul'Vanecha)" - this includes the Log of oil of a Metzora (that Kohanim eat the remainder after Matanos Behonos);
i. One might have thought, Kohanim only get "Min ha'Esh" (none of the oil is offered on the Mizbe'ach.)
2. "L'Chol Minchasam" - this includes the Omer and Kena'os;
i. One might have thought, "V'Achlu Osam Asher Kupar Bahem" only teaches that Kohanim eat Korbanos brought for atonement, but the Omer permits and Minchas Sotah clarifies (whether or not she is guilty.)
3. "Ul'Chol Chatasam" - this includes Chatas ha'Of;
i. One might have thought that it may not be eaten, for it is Neveilah (Melikah is not slaughter.)
4. "Ul'Chol Ashamam" - this includes Asham Nazir and Asham Metzora;
5. Objection: Regarding Asham Metzora it says "Ka'Chatas ha'Asham"!
6. Correction: It means, we include Asham Nazir like Asham Metzora;
i. One might have thought that Asham Nazir is not eaten, for it is not brought for atonement, only to permit (a Nazir (who became Tamei Mes, then became Tahor) to begin Nezirus Taharah. Rashi Kesav Yad, R. Gershom, Shitah Mekubetzes and Rashba all say that it also permits him to wine and/or Tum'ah - perhaps they mean, it will enable him to finish Nezirus Taharah sooner and drink wine/become Tamei.)
7. "Asher Yashivu" - this refers to Gezel ha'Ger (one who stole from a convert and swore to deny it, and wants to do Teshuvah after the convert died without heirs, he brings an Asham and gives the money and an added fifth to the Kohen);
i. "Lecha Hu ul'Vanecha" - Kohanim totally own the money, they may Mekadesh a woman with it (unlike Kodshim, which are Hash-m's, Kohanim merely have the right to eat them.)
2) "KODSHIM" OF NOCHRIM
(a) (Rav Huna): The Shelamim of a Nochri is an Olah - we learn from reasoning or a verse:
1. It is reasonable that it is an Olah, for a Nochri intends that his Korban go entirely to Hash-m;
2. We can also learn from "Asher Yakrivu la'Sh-m l'Olah" - whatever he offers is an Olah.
(b) Question (R. Chama bar Gurya - Beraisa): If a Nochri volunteered to bring a Shelamim:
1. If he gave it to a Yisrael, the Yisrael eats it;
2. If he gave it to a Kohen, the Kohen eats it.
(c) Answer (Rava): It means, if he gave it to a Yisrael (Rashi - who was obligated to bring a Shelamim) to be offered on behalf of the Yisrael, the Yisrael eats it; if he gave it to be offered on behalf of a Kohen, the Kohen eats it. (Rav Huna discusses a Nochri who brings a Shelamim without specifying, i.e. on behalf of himself.)
(d) Question (Rav Shizbi - Mishnah): Kemitzah is taken from the following Menachos and the Shirayim are eaten by Kohanim - ...Minchas Nochrim...(likewise, Shelamim of a Nochri should be eaten!)
(e) Answer (R. Yochanan): Our Mishnah is like R. Yosi ha'Galili, Rav Huna's law is like R. Akiva. (Apparently, this is also a second answer to Question (b).)
1. (Beraisa - R. Yosi ha'Galili) Question: What do we learn from "Ish Ish (...Asher Yakriv)"?
2. Answer: This teaches that Nochrim may offer Korbanos, like Yisrael.
3. Question: The verse continues "...Asher Yakrivu la'Sh-m l'Olah" - what is the source that Nochrim may offer Shelamim?
4. Answer: It also says "Nidreihem".
5. Question: What is the source that Nochrim may offer Todah?
6. Answer: It also says "Nidvosam".
7. Question: What is the source that Nochrim may offer birds, wine, Levonah and wood?
8. Answer: It says "*L'Chol* Nidreihem *ul'Chol* Nidvosam".
9. Question: Since they may offer all of these, why does it specify "l'Olah"?
10. Answer: This excludes (Korbanos of) Nezirus
11. R. Akiva says, "Asher Yakrivu la'Sh-m l'Olah" teaches that that may offer only Olos.
(f) Question: A different verse excludes Nochrim from Nezirus - "Daber El Benei Yisrael...Ish...Ki Yafli Lindor Neder Nazir", only a Yisrael may become a Nazir!
(g) Answer: If we only had the verse "Asher Yakrivu la'Sh-m l'Olah", one might have thought that Nochrim can be Nezirim, just they are exempt from Korbanos Nazir;
1. "Benei Yisrael...Neder Nazir" totally excludes Nochrim from Nezirus.
(h) Question: Like which Tana is the following Mishnah?
1. (Mishnah - R. Shimon): (If someone found an animal near Yerushalayim and wants to Makriv it on behalf of the loser (perhaps it is a Korban), the Tzibur brings the Nesachim;) this is one of seven enactments of Beis Din;
2. Another enactment - if a Nochri sent an Olah to be offered in the Mikdash and (money for) its Nesachim, we offer the Nesachim from his money;
i. If he sent an Olah without Nesachim, the Tzibur pays for the Nesachim.
3. Suggestion: This is like R. Yosi ha'Galili, it is not like R. Akiva.
(i) Answer: No, it is even like R. Akiva - he means, Nochrim bring Olos and all their accompaniments.
(j) Question: Who is the Tana of the following Beraisa - it is not like R. Yosi ha'Galili nor like R. Akiva!
1. (Beraisa): "Ezrach" - a Yisrael brings Nesachim, a Nochri does not.
2. Suggestion: Perhaps a Nochri's Olah does not require Nesachim!
3. Rejection: "Kachach" (Nesachim are Me'akev.)
i. It is not like R. Yosi ha'Galili - he says that Nochrim may bring even wine!
ii. It is not like R. Akiva - he holds that Nochrim bring only Olos (their Korbanos do not require Nesachim!)
(k) Answer: It can be like R. Yosi, just we must delete 'wine' from the text of the Beraisa (e:1);
1. It can be like R. Akiva - Nochrim bring Olos and all their accompaniments.
3) "MINCHAS CHOTEI" OF "KOHANIM"
(a) (Mishnah - R. Shimon): Minchas Chotei of Kohanim (is Nikmetzes...)
(b) Question: What is the source of this?
(c) Answer (Beraisa): "V'Haysah la'Kohen ka'Minchah" - a Kohen may offer his own Minchas Chotei.
1. Suggestion: Perhaps it rather permits eating (Shirayim of) Minchas Kohanim!
i. Question: If so, how would we fulfill "V'Chol Minchas Kohen Kalil Tihyeh Lo Se'achel"?
ii. Answer: That would apply to a Kohen's Minchas Nedavah, not to his Chovah
2. Answer: "V'Haysah la'Kohen ka'Minchah" - this equates his Chovah to his Nedavah;
i. Just like his Chovah is not eaten, also his Nedavah.