Menachos 74 - MINCHAS CHOTEI OF KOHANIM
1) MINCHAS CHOTEI OF KOHANIM
(a) (Continuation of Beraisa - R. Shimon): It does not say 'V'Haysah la'Kohen ka'Minchaso', rather, "ka'Minchah"!
1. Rather, the verse equates a Kohen's Minchas Chotei to a Yisrael's - just like a Yisrael's Minchas Chotei is Nikmetzes, also a Kohen's.
2. Suggestion: A Yisrael's Minchas Chotei is Nikmetzes, the Shirayim are eaten - perhaps the same applies to a Kohen's!
3. Rejection: "La'Kohen ka'Minchah" - the Kohen's Avodah is the same (it is Nikmetzes), but it is different regarding the part that is burned;
i. The Kometz is Huktar by itself, the Shirayim are Hukteru by themselves.
(b) Question: A different verse teaches that a Kohen may offer his own Minchas Chotei!
1. (Beraisa) Question: What is the source that a Kohen may offer his own (Rashi - obligatory) Korbanos whenever he wants (even when another Mishmar is serving?)
2. Answer: "Uva b'Chol Avas Nafsho...v'Sheres".
(c) Answer: If that was the only source, one might have thought that it does not apply to Korbanos brought on account of Chet.
(d) Question: "V'Chiper ha'Kohen Al ha'Nefesh ha'Shogeges b'Chet'ah vi'Shgagah" teaches that a Kohen can offer a Korban for his own Chet!
(e) Answer: One might have thought, that is only for Shogeg, but not for Mezid - "V'Haysah la'Kohen ka'Minchah" teaches, even b'Mezid.
(f) Question: What is the case of Minchas Chotei for Mezid (normally, Chatas is only for Shogeg!)
(g) Answer: He intentionally swore Shevu'as ha'Edus falsely (he denied knowing testimony.)
(h) (Beraisa - R. Shimon): A Kohen's Minchas Chotei is Nikmetzes, the Kometz and Shirayim are each offered by themselves;
(i) R. Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon says, the Kometz is offered by itself, the Shirayim are spread on Beis ha'Deshen.
(j) Question (R. Yochanan): Which Beis ha'Deshen are they spread on?
1. He cannot mean on top of the Mizbe'ach, this is like his father (surely, in the Beraisa he comes to argue!)
2. He cannot mean on the ground - we do not offer on the ground!
3. Suggestion (R. Aba): Perhaps (it is on the ground) - they are not offered, they are burned like Pasul Korbanos!
4. People laughed at this - we do not bring a Korban in order that it will go to waste!
(k) (R. Avin's father - Beraisa): "V'Chol Minchas Kohen Kalil Tihyeh Lo Se'achel" - they are equated only regarding eating. (The previous verse teaches that Chavitei Kohen Gadol are Kalil (entirely burned on the Mizbe'ach), this verse forbids eating Minchas Nedavah of a Kohen.
(l) (Rashi Kesav Yad - This defends R. Aba - also a Kohen's Minchas Nedavah is not eaten nor Kalil, it is offered to go to waste! Rashi - we do not defend R. Aba, this is a new, unrelated teaching. We must say that a Gezeras ha'Kasuv teaches that a Kohen's Minchas Chotei goes to waste.)
(m) Question: What does this mean?
(n) Answer #1 (Abaye): "Kol Minchas Kohen...Lo Se'achel' - even Chovos (such as Minchas Chotei) of a Kohen may not be eaten (like Chavitim), 'Kalil Tihyeh' refers to his Nedavos.
(o) Objection (Rava): You cannot cut up the verses like that (to apply the end of the verse to the beginning!
(p) Answer #2 (Rava): "V'Chol Minchas Kohen Kalil Tihyeh" - his Nedavos, "Lo Se'achel" refers to his Chovos.
(q) Question (against both answers; Rashba - perhaps this is only against Rava, for Abaye holds that "Kol Minchas..." only comes to include Chovos): Perhaps we should say just the contrary (Nedavos may not be eaten, Chovos must be Kalil!)
(r) Answer: It is more reasonable to learn as they did, for Nedavos are like Chavitim - both (can or do) come every day, they are not on account of Chet, and have a nice smell (they have oil and Levonah; alternatively, regarding them it says "Re'ach Nicho'ach");
(s) Question: We should say that Chovos are like Chavitim - both cannot be more than one Isaron and are obligatory!
(t) Answer: There are more similarities of Nedavos to Chavitim.
2) "KALIL TIHYEH"
(a) Question: How do Chachamim (who say that Minchas Kohanim is not Nikmetzes) expound?
(b) Answer (Beraisa) The first verse teaches that Chavitei Kohen Gadol are Kalil, the latter forbids eating Minchas Nedavah of a Kohen;
1. Question: What is the source to apply to each of these laws (Kalil and a Lav against eating) to the other?
2. Answer: We learn from a Gezerah Shavah "Kalil-Kalil" - just like Kalil of Chavitim is "Taktar (entirely Huktar)", also that of Nedavah; just like a Lav forbids eating Chavitim, also regarding Nidvas Kohen.
(c) Question (Ravina): If a Kohen ate Eimurim, what is the law?
1. It is clear to me that he transgressed the Lav forbidding a Zar to eat Kodshei Kodoshim (since he is forbidden to eat them, it is as if he is a Zar);
2. Does he transgress "Kalil Tihyeh"?
(d) Answer (Rav Aharon - Beraisa): Whenever it says "Kalil Tihyeh", a Lav forbids eating it.
3) THINGS TOTALLY FOR THE "MIZBE'ACH" OR FOR "KOHANIM"
(a) (Mishnah): Minchas Kohanim, Chavitei Kohen Gadol and Minchas Nesachim are totally Kalil on the Mizbe'ach, Kohanim do not receive any part of them;
1. Regarding these, the Mizbe'ach has greater Ko'ach (privileges) than Kohanim;
(b) Shtei ha'Lechem and Lechem ha'Panim are totally eaten by Kohanim, no part of them goes on the Mizbe'ach;
1. Regarding these, Kohanim have greater Ko'ach than the Mizbe'ach.
(c) (Gemara) Questions: There are other things that are totally for the Mizbe'ach!
1. Question #1: Olah is Kalil on the Mizbe'ach!
2. Answer: Its skin is given to Kohanim.
3. Question #2: Olas ha'Of is Kalil on the Mizbe'ach!
4. Answer: Its innards and the attached feathers are not put on the Mizbe'ach.
5. Question #3: Nesachim (of wine) go entirely on the Mizbe'ach!
6. Answer: They are poured through the Shitin (conduits in the Mizbe'ach through which Nesachim are poured, the Mizbe'ach does not consume the wine.)
(d) Question: It says '*Regarding these*', the Mizbe'ach has greater Ko'ach - what do we learn from these words?
(e) Answer #1: This teaches unlike Shmuel:
1. (Shmuel): Nedavos of wine are sprinkled on the fire on the Mizbe'ach. (According to Shmuel, the Mizbe'ach also has greater Ko'ach regarding Nedavos of wine.)
2. Our Tana holds that all wine is poured through the Shitin. (Shmuel is not refuted, for perhaps our Tana is like R. Yehudah, who forbids Davar she'Eino Miskaven (wine partially extinguishes the fire on the Mizbe'ach), but R. Shimon (who permits Davar she'Eino Miskaven) would say that Nedavos of wine go on the fire.)
(f) Answer #2: This supports a different teaching of Shmuel:
1. (Shmuel): Kemitzah is taken (and Huktar) from Nedavos of oil, Kohanim eat the Shirayim. (Our Tana cannot hold that oil is totally Huktar, for then the Mizbe'ach would have greater Ko'ach regarding Nedavos of oil.)
(g) (Mishnah): Shtei ha'Lechem and Lechem ha'Panim...
(h) Questions: There are other things that are totally eaten by Kohanim!
1. Question #1: Chatas ha'Of is totally eaten by Kohanim!
2. Answer: The blood is sprinkled on the Mizbe'ach.
3. Question #2: Kohanim eat the Log of oil of a Metzora, none goes on the Mizbe'ach!
4. Answer: They do not eat all of it, some of it is sprinkled towards the Heichal, some is put on the ear, thumb and toe of the Metzora.
(i) Question: It says '*Regarding these*', Kohanim have greater Ko'ach - what do we learn from these words?
(j) Answer: This argues with the opinion that when Shtei ha'Lechem are brought by themselves (without Kivsei Atzeres), they are burned;
1. Our Tana holds that Kohanim always eat Shtei ha'Lechem (i.e. even in this case.)
4) "MATANOS" OF OIL
(a) (Mishnah): All Menachos that are cooked in a Kli Shares require three Matanos of oil - Yetzikah (putting on oil after they are cooked), for Belilah (mixing the Soles with oil) and oil is put in the Kli before the Soles.
(b) Rebbi says, after the Minchah is baked into Chalos, they are (crumbed and) Belulos (mixed) with oil;
(c) Chachamim say, Belilah is done while it is Soles (before baking.)
(d) Chalos (Rashi - of Ma'afe Tanur; Shitah Mekubetzes - of all Menachos) require Belilah, Rekikim require Meshichah (oil is spread on them).
(e) Meshichah is done like 'Chai' (this will be explained), the rest of the oil is eaten by Kohanim.
(f) (Gemara) Question: ('All Menachos that are cooked in a Kli') - what does this come to exclude?
(g) Answer (Rav Papa): It excludes Ma'afe Tanur (the Tana does not consider the Tanur to be a Kli Shares.)
(h) (Beraisa): "V'Im Minchas Marcheshes Korbanecha Soles ba'Shemen Te'aseh" - this teaches that (flour is added after) oil is put in the Kli;
1. A Gezerah Shavah "Korbanecha-Korbanecha" teaches that Minchas Machavas also requires oil in the Kli;
2. We also learn Marcheshes from Machavas to require Yetzikah and Belilah.