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08-02-2011
Title:
Menachos 85 - A CHOICE PLACE FOR GRAIN

Message:
1) A CHOICE PLACE FOR GRAIN

(a) (Mishnah): All Menachos must come from choice grain (...the next best place is Aforayim.)
(b) When Moshe (first) performed wonders in Mitzrayim, two of the most expert witches remarked 'Do you bring straw (to sell) to Aforayim?!' (It is already full of grain - likewise, Mitzrayim is already full of witchcraft.)
(c) Moshe: One goes to the vegetable market to sell vegetables (all the buyers go there! Aruch - he answered the fools according to their folly; ultimately, all would see that their witchcraft was no match for Hash-m's wonders.)
2) PLANTING FOR THE "OMER"
(a) (Mishnah): We do not bring the Omer (Tosfos - or other Menachos) from the following:
1. Beis ha'Zevalim (a field that needs to be fertilized - perhaps it will not be fertilized enough; alternatively, it ruins the taste of the produce), Beis ha'Shelachin (a field that must be irrigated - perhaps it will not be irrigated enough) or a tree field (the shade is bad for grain - alternatively, the trees nurture from the soil, weakening the grain);
2. If it was brought from one of them, it is Kosher.
(b) To bring the Omer, the first year it is Nir (plowed and left fallow), and in the second year, it is planted 70 days before Pesach, it produces much Soles.
(c) To check if the Soles was sifted enough, the Gizbar inserts his hand - if (flour) dust sticks to it it is Pasul until it is sifted again.
(d) If it became wormy, it is Pasul.
(e) (Gemara - Mishnah): ...The first year it is Nir ....
(f) Question: How do we understand the Mishnah?
1. Possibility #1: The first year it is Nir and in the second year, and (in the second year) it is planted 70 days before Pesach;
2. Possibility #2: The first year it is Nir, in the second year we do not plow, we only plant it 70 days before Pesach.
(g) Version #1 (our text, Rashi) - Answer (Beraisa - R. Yosi): Even wheat of Karziyim and Kefar Achim would have been used (for Menachos) had they *not* been close to Yerushalayim (they were between the mountains, they did not get enough sun);
(h) Version #2 (Rashi Kesav Yad) - Answer (Beraisa - R. Yosi): Even (barley of) Chiti Karziyim (a place) and Kefar Achim would have been used (for the Omer) had they been close to Yerushalayim. (End of Version #2)
1. We only use well-plowed, southern fields, for the sun shines on them from morning to evening (in winter, when we must grow the Omer; alternatively, winter is the best time to grow wheat for other Menachos. Tosfos - the fields are inclined, the bottom points to the south; Rashi - they are in the south of Eretz Yisrael.)
2. The first year it is Nir, the second year we plow and replow and plant 70 days before Pesach, just before the sun starts getting stronger.
3. The stalk grows a Zeres (the distance between the pinky and thumb, this is two or three Tefachim), the ears grow two Zeretim; it is harvested, piled up, threshed, winnowed, selected, ground, sifted, and brought to the Gizbar;
4. The Gizbar inserts his hand - if dust sticks to it, he tells them to sift it again;
5. R. Noson says, the Gizbar anoints his hand with oil and inserts it (to check it well,) as long as dust sticks to it, he keeps telling them to sift it again, until all the dust is removed.
6. Summation of answer: It says, in the second year we plow and replow.
(i) Objection: In any case, this is unlike the Mishnah (at most, the Mishnah says that we plow once in the second year!)
85b---------------------------------------85b

(j) Answer: The Mishnah discusses a field that was worked the previous year (Shitah Mekubetzes - two years ago), it is enough to plow once this year), the Beraisa discusses a field that was not worked the previous year (Shitah - two years ago), it must be plowed twice this year.
(k) Question: What was the conclusion? (Shitah - the Gemara is not confident about the above answer.)
(l) Answer (Beraisa): One year half the field is Nir, the other half is worked; the next (and every subsequent) year we switch the worked and Nir halves. (There is no need to plow in the year it is worked.)
(m) (R. Yochanan): We only bring the Omer from southern fields, for the sun shines on them from morning to evening.
(n) A Beraisa supports this. (Shitah Mekubetzes deletes this, for the above Beraisa already supports R. Yochanan (according to Version #2).)
(o) (Beraisa - Aba Sha'ul): The Omer used to come from the valley of Beis Mikleh, it was the size in which three Sa'im are planted (Rashi - it was big enough to grow the three Sa'im needed for the Omer);
1. It is southern, the sun shines on it from morning to evening; half the field is Nir, half is worked.
(p) R. Chilkiya bar Tuvya had a piece of land, each year he alternated, half was Nir, half was worked; the field produced twice of a normal field that size, he sold the wheat for Menachos.
3) WORMY WHEAT
(a) (Mishnah): If it became wormy, it is Pasul.
(b) (Beraisa): If Soles was mostly wormy, it is Pasul; if wheat was mostly wormy, it is Pasul.
(c) Question (R. Yirmeyah): Does this mean, most of each wheat kernel was wormy, or most of the kernels were (at least partially) wormy?
(d) This question is not resolved.
(e) Question (Rava): If one was Makdish wormy Soles (for a Minchah), is he lashed for being Makdish a Ba'al Mum?
1. Since it is Pasul, this is like being Makdish a Ba'al Mum;
2. Or, perhaps the Lav only applies to animals.
(f) This question is not resolved.
(g) (Mishnah): Any wood in which a worm is found is Pasul for the Ma'arachah.
(h) (Shmuel): This is only if it is wet - if it is dry, we may scrape off the wormy part.
(i) Question (Rava): If one was Makdish wormy wood, is he lashed for being Makdish a Ba'al Mum?
1. Since it is Pasul, this is like being Makdish a Ba'al Mum;
2. Or, perhaps the Lav only applies to animals.
(j) This question is not resolved.
4) THE BEST PLACE FOR OIL
(a) (Mishnah): Teko'a is the best place for oil;
(b) Aba Sha'ul says, next best is Regev in Ever ha'Yarden;
(c) Any place is Kosher, just these are the best.
(d) We do not use (for Menachos) olives from Beis ha'Zevalim, Beis ha'Shelachin, or from trees growing amidst other crops; if they were used, it is Kosher.
(e) We do not bring use Anfeknon (oil made from unripe olives); if it was used, it is Kosher.
(f) We do not use olives (that fell and became) soaked in water, or that were pickled or cooked (alternatively - that do not give oil until they are soaked, pickled or cooked); if they were used, it is Pasul.
(g) (Gemara) Question: "Va'Yishlach Yo'av Teko'ah va'Yikach mi'Sham Ishah Chachamah" - why did he send to Teko'a? (Maharsha - it does not say that he sent for 'Ishah Chachamah mi'Teko'a', this implies that that he did not know about her from before, he just knew that Tekoa's was a good place for Chachamos.)
(h) Answer (R. Yochanan): They are used to eating olive oil, which is conducive to Chachmah.
(i) (Beraisa): "V'Tovel ba'Shemen Raglo" - this refers to the inheritance of Asher, which flows with oil like a spring;
1. Once, people of Ludkiyah needed oil, they sent a Nochri to buy a million Manos (a Maneh is 100 Dinarim) of oil. He went to Yerushalayim, and was (eventually) directed to Ploni in Gush Chalav (in Asher's portion.) He found Ploni in the field digging under a tree, and asked if he has a million Manos of oil to sell.
2. Ploni: (Yes,) please wait until I finish my work.
3. After Ploni finished, he put his tools over his back and was clearing stones off the field while heading back to the city.
4. The Nochri: You (who act like a poor person) have a million Manos of oil to sell?! The Yehudim are ridiculing me!
5. When Ploni reached the city, his slave brought hot water for him to wash his hands and feet, and oil for him to immerse them, fulfilling "V'Tovel ba'Shemen Raglo". After they ate and drank, he measured a million Manos of oil, and asked if they needed more.
6. The Nochri: Yes, but I do not have more money.
7. Ploni: Take, I will come with you to collect for it.
8. He measured out an extra 180,000 Manos of oil, the Nochri hired every horse, mule, camel and donkey in Eretz Yisrael to carry it. When he returned, the people praised him.
9. The Nochri: Do not praise me, rather, Ploni - I owe him another 180,000 Manos;
i. Ploni exemplified "Yesh Mis'asher v'Ein Kol Misroshesh v'Hon Rov' (some people have nothing and make themselves appear rich, some have great wealth and make themselves appear poor.)

   
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