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08-02-2011
Title:
Menachos 86 - INFERIOR OILS

Message:
1) INFERIOR OILS

(a) (Mishnah): We do not bring from Beis ha'Zevalim...(or from Anfeknon; if it was used, it is Kosher.)
(b) Contradiction (Beraisa): We do not bring from Anfeknon; if it was used, it is Pasul, for it is sap, it is not considered oil. (Rashi Kesav Yad - the Mishnah is also Posel, but it considers it to be oil.)
(c) Answer (Rav Yosef): The Mishnah is like R. Shimon bar Rebbi, the Beraisa is like R. Chiya:
1. R. Chiya would not eat oil of Anfeknon (he did not consider it to be oil; Tosfos - he would not throw it out, it is useful for anointing), R. Shimon bar Rebbi would dip vegetables in it.
2. A way to remember the opinions - the rich (R. Shimon, the son of the Nasi) economize.
(d) Question: (Candidates to replace Vashti would be beautified) "Shishah Chodoshim *b'Shemen ha'Mor*"- what is this?
(e) Answer #1 (Rav Huna bar Chiya ): It is balsam oil.
(f) Answer #2 (R. Yirmeyah bar Aba): It is oil of olives that did not reach one-third growth.
(g) (Beraisa - R. Yehudah): Anfeknon is oil of olives that did not reach one-third growth;
1. People use it to remove hair and freshen the skin.
(h) (Mishnah): We do not bring from soaked olives...
(i) (Beraisa): One may not bring olive oil that was pickled or cooked, or made from dregs or that has a bad smell; if it was brought, it is Pasul.
(j) Question (Rava): If one was Makdish such oil, is he lashed for being Makdish a Ba'al Mum?
1. Since it is Pasul, this is like being Makdish a Ba'al Mum;
2. Or, perhaps the Lav only applies to animals.
(k) This question is not resolved.
2) DIFFERENT QUALITIES OF OIL
(a) (Mishnah): There are three grades of (ripeness of) olives (Rashi Kesav Yad - they are harvested at three times), three oils come from each of them.
(b) Grade A olives are those taken from the top of the tree (they get much sun and ripen well).
1. The first oil (of Grade A) - these olives are crushed and put into a basket (the clear oil flows outside the basket, the dregs and waste remain inside);
2. Version #1 (Rashi Kesav Yad): R. Yehudah says, the crushed olives are placed (in the basket, along the circumference) on the walls (so that the oil will drip down the walls, and impurities will stick to the walls, clear oil falls to the bottom and is strained through the bottom.)
3. Version #2 (R. Gershom): R. Yehudah says, the crushed olives are placed on the brim of the basket (the oil drips down the walls, impurities stick to the walls.) (end of Version #2)
(c) The second oil - a beam is put on the olives to press them;
1. R. Yehudah says, rocks are put on them to press them (a beam would cause dregs to come out).
(d) The third oil - the olives are ground in a grinder and pressed with a beam.
(e) The first oil is Kosher for the Menorah, the others are Kosher for Menachos.
(f) Grade B - individual olives are taken from roof height (these get less sun and do not ripen so well - Rashi; Rashi Kesav Yad - they are harvested while standing on the roof (the trees are nearby); Rambam - assorted olives are put on and selected from the roof).
1. The three oils of Grade B (and also of Grade C below) are made just like those of Grade A, the first (of each) is Kosher for the Menorah, the others are Kosher for Menachos.
(g) Grade C - the lowest olives on the tree are stored in a bucket in the olivepress until they are stricken (the peel softens and they change color), they are put on the roof to dry (from sap that exuded.)
(h) (Gemara) Question: (Regarding Grade A) does the Mishnah say, 'Megargero' (he picks out the ripe Gargarim (individual olives); alternatively, each Gargir is left until it is ripe), or 'Megalgelo' (he tarries until it ripens nicely)?
(i) Answer (Beraisa): "Shemen Zayis" - from the olive, it should stay on the tree until it is full of oil (it exudes without pressing);
1. This teaches that for Grade A, we are *Megalgel* olives on the tree, they are gathered into the olivepress ground in a grinder and placed in baskets;
i. The first oil is what exudes by itself, the second oil comes through pressing with a beam, the third comes after regrinding and pressing with a beam.
ii. The first is Kosher for the Menorah, the others are Kosher for Menachos.
2. The same applies to Grade B olives;
3. Grade C olives are stored in a bucket in the olivepress until they are stricken, they are put on the roof to dry like dates (Rashi Kesav Yad - they are piled in a date-shaped mound), when they are dry they are returned to the olivepress;
i. The three oils are then obtained just like from Grade A or B olives.
ii. The first is Kosher for the Menorah, the others are Kosher for Menachos.
(j) R. Yehudah says, olives (for the first oil) are not ground in a grinder, rather, they are crushed in a pounder; rocks are used to press (the second and third oils), not a beam; they are not placed in the basket, rather, on the walls (or brim.)
(k) Question: The Tana of our Mishnah says that olives (for the first oil) are not ground, rather, crushed - this is like R. Yehudah (in the Beraisa);
1. He also says that they are placed in the basket!
(l) Answer: The Tana holds like R. Yehudah regarding crushing, and argues with him regarding placement in the basket.
(m) (Mishnah): The highest quality oil is the first of Grade A; the second of Grade A and the first of Grade B are equal (they are next best); the third of Grade A, the second of Grade B and the first of Grade C are equal; the third of Grade B and the second of Grade C are equal; the third of Grade C is the lowest quality there is.
(n) Suggestion: A Kal va'Chomer should have taught that Menachos require "Shemen Zayis Zach" (clear oil, not from ground olives)!
1. Oil for the Menorah is not called 'Achilah', yet it requires Shemen Zayis Zach - (partial or total) Haktarah of Menachos is called 'Achilah', all the more so it should require Shemen Zayis Zach!
(o) Rejection: "Zach Kasis la'Ma'or" - for the Menorah, it must be clear and crushed (not ground), Menachos do not require this.
86b---------------------------------------86b

(p) (Gemara) Question: How can the Mishnah say that second oil of Grade A and first of Grade B are equal - only first oil is Kosher for the Menorah, second oil is only Kosher for Menachos!
(q) Answer (Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): It means, they are equal with respect to Menachos (it is a Mitzvah to use choice oil - both of them are the same quality.)
3) OIL FOR THE "MENORAH" AND FOR "MENACHOS"
(a) (Mishnah): Suggestion: A Kal va'Chomer should have taught...
(b) (Beraisa): "Zach" means clean;
(c) R. Yehudah says, "Kasis" means crushed;
(d) Suggestion: Perhaps Zach Kasis is Pasul for Menachos!
(e) Rejection: "V'Isaron Soles Balul b'Shemen Kasis".
(f) Question: If so, why does it say "(Zach Kasis) la'Ma'or"?
(g) Answer: On account of savings.
(h) Question: Why is this a concern?
(i) Answer (R. Elazar): The Torah is concerned for the money of Yisrael (much oil is used for Menachos, if all must be Zach Kasis it will be expensive; only three and a half Lugim are used each day for the Menorah.)
(j) (R. Shmuel bar Nachmani): (Hash-m said) "Tzav Es Benei Yisrael va'Yikchu Elecha Shemen Zayis Zach" - the light is for you (to show your dearness to Me), not for Me, I do not need it;
(k) (Rav Zerika): The Shulchan is in the north, the Menorah is in the south (and the Mizbe'ach is in between) - this emphasizes that Hash-m does not need to eat the Korbanos, nor does He need the light (to illuminate on his table.)
(l) (Beraisa): "Va'Ya'aseh la'Bayis Chalonei Shekufim Atumim" - the windows (openings in the walls) of the Heichal were thinner on the inside than the outside - if Hash-m wanted light to enter from the outside, they would be the opposite!
(m) "Mi'Chutz l'Paroches *ha'Edus* b'Ohel Mo'ed" - the Menorah is testimony to the world that the Shechinah dwells amidst Yisrael.
1. Suggestion: Perhaps Hash-m needs the light!
2. Rejection: The 40 years in the Midbar, Hash-m illuminated for Yisrael (with a pillar of fire)!
i. Rather, the Menorah is only for testimony that the Shechinah dwells amidst Yisrael.
(n) Question: What it the testimony?
(o) Answer (Rava): The testimony was the western lamp (according to the opinion that the (length of the) Menorah is north-south, the middle lamp tilts westward; according to the opinion that it is east-west, this refers to the more western of the two easternmost lamps);
1. The same amount of oil was put in all the lamps, all were lit just before evening; the others would finish burning in the morning, the western lamp kept burning until the coming evening.
4) ONE WHO IS "MAKDISH" WORMY WOOD
(a) Question (Rava): If one was Makdish wormy wood, is he lashed for being Makdish a Ba'al Mum?
1. Since it is Pasul, this is like being Makdish a Ba'al Mum;
2. Or, perhaps the Lav only applies to animals.
(b) This question is not resolved.
5) THE BEST WINE
(a) (Mishnah): Kedochin and Atulin are the best places for wine; the next best places are Beis Rimah and Beis Lavan in the mountain, and Signa in the valley.
(b) Any place is Kosher, just they used to bring from these places.
(c) We do not use grapes of Beis ha'Zevalim, Beis ha'Shelachin, or grapes that grow amidst other crops; if they were used (for Nesachim), they are Kosher.
(d) We do not bring from Halistiyon (from overripe grapes); if it was brought, it is Kosher.
(e) Rebbi says, we do not bring old wine;
(f) Chachamim permit this.
(g) We do not bring wine that is sweet (naturally, not because the grapes were overripe), smoked or cooked; if it was brought, it is Pasul.
(h) We do not use (grapes from) vines supported on poles, only low vines, from worked vineyards.
(i) We do not gather the wine in large barrels (it is used little by little, if the barrel was partially empty for a long time, the remaining wine would spoil), rather, in small barrels;
(j) We do not fill the barrels to the top, in order that they should give off a nice smell.

   
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