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08-02-2011
Title:
Menachos 92 - TO WHICH

Message:
1) TO WHICH "KORBANOS" DOES "SEMICHAH" APPLY?

(a) (Mishnah): Semichah does not apply to Korbanos Tzibur, except for Par He'elam Davar (brought for mistaken Hora'ah) and Se'ir ha'Mishtale'ach (the goat sent to Azazel on Yom Kipur);
(b) R. Shimon says, it also applies to Se'irei Avodah Zarah (brought for mistaken Hora'ah about idolatry).
(c) Semichah applies to all Korbanos Yachid, except for Bechor, Ma'aser and Pesach.
(d) If one inherited a Korban, he brings it and does Semichah, brings the Nesachim and can make Temurah.
(e) (Gemara - Beraisa - R. Shimon): Semichah does not apply to Korbanos Tzibur, except for Par He'elam Davar and Se'irei Avodah Zarah;
(f) R. Yehudah says, Semichah does not apply to Se'irei Avodah Zarah - in place of them, it applies to Se'ir ha'Mishtale'ach.
1. Interjection: Why must it apply to something else?
2. Answer (Ravina): There is a tradition that Semichah applies to two Korbanos Tzibur.
(g) R. Shimon: The Ba'alim (those who get atonement through a Korban) must do Semichah, but the Kohen Gadol is Somech on Se'ir ha'Mishtale'ach (even though it does not atone for him, therefore, this is not counted among the two Semichos.)
(h) R. Yehudah: Indeed, the Se'ir atones for the Kohen Gadol!
(i) (R. Yirmeyah): This is like R. Shimon and R. Yehudah hold elsewhere:
1. Version #1 - Rashi - (Beraisa - R. Yehudah): "V'Chiper (the Kohen Gadol sprinkles the blood of the bull and inner goat to atone for Teme'im who entered the following places) Es Mikdash ha'Kodesh" - the Kodesh ha'Kodoshim; "Ohel Mo'ed" - the Heichal; "ha'Mizbe'ach" - the Altar; "Yechaper" - this is extra, to teach about (entering) the Chatzer of the Mikdash.
2. Version #2 - Rashi Kesav Yad - (Beraisa - R. Yehudah): "V'Chiper (the Kohen Gadol sprinkles the bloods in the following places to atone for Tum'as Mikdash) Es Mikdash ha'Kodesh" - (between the staves of the Aron, in) the Kodesh ha'Kodoshim; "Ohel Mo'ed" - (towards the Paroches, while in) the Heichal; "Mizbe'ach" - the inner Mizbe'ach; "Yechaper" - (this is extra, it teaches about pouring the leftover blood on the base of the Mizbe'ach which is in) the Chatzer; (end of Version #2)
i. (The verse continues) "Kohanim...Am ha'Kahal (Yisraelim) ...Yechaper" (to include Leviyim) - Se'ir ha'Mishtale'ach atones equally for all of them.
3. R. Shimon says, just as the blood of the inner goat atones for Yisraelim for Tum'ah (of the Mikdash or Kodshim), the blood of the bull atones for Kohanim for Tum'ah of the Mikdash or Kodshim;
4. Just as Viduy (confession) over Se'ir ha'Mishtale'ach atones for Yisraelim for other transgressions, Viduy over the bull atones for Kohanim for other transgressions.
5. Question: Surely, the verse equated the atonement of Kohanim and Yisraelim - how does R. Shimon explain this?
6. Answer: Indeed, it teaches that they all get atonement for Tum'ah and other transgressions; however, they get atonement through different sacrifices.
7. Summary: According to R. Yehudah, blood of the inner goat for Yisraelim, and of the bull for Kohanim, atones for Tum'ah; Viduy over Se'ir ha'Mishtale'ach atones for all for other transgressions;
i. R. Shimon only argues about atonement for Kohanim for other transgressions, he says that this is also through, Viduy over the bull.
8. (Mishnah): Se'ir ha'Mishtale'ach atones for Yisraelim, Kohanim and an anointed Kohen alike.
9. Question: What is the difference between them?!
10. Answer: The bull atones for Tum'ah of Kohanim (and the inner goat for Tum'ah of Yisraelim.)
11. This is like R. Yehudah.
12. R. Shimon says, just as the blood of the inner goat atones for Tum'ah of Yisraelim, the blood of the bull atones for (Tum'ah of) Kohanim;
i. Just as Viduy over Se'ir ha'Mishtale'ach atones for Yisraelim (for other transgressions), Viduy over the bull atones for Kohanim.
2) "SEMICHAH" FOR "SE'IREI AVODAH ZARAH"
(a) (Beraisa #1 - R. Yehudah): "V'Somchu Ziknei ha'Edah Es Yadeihem Al Rosh ha'Par" - Par (He'elam Davar) requires Semichah, Se'irei Avodah Zarah do not.
(b) R. Shimon says, the Zekenim (Sanhedrin) do Semichah on the Par, not on Se'irei Avodah Zarah, rather, Aharon (i.e. the Kohen Gadol) is Somech on them.
(c) Contradiction (Beraisa #2 - R. Yehudah): "Ha'Chai" (the live goat, i.e. Se'ir ha'Mishtale'ach) requires Semichah, Se'irei Avodah Zarah do not;
(d) R. Shimon says, Aharon is Somech on Se'ir ha'Mishtale'ach, not on Se'irei Avodah Zarah, rather, the Zekenim are Somech on them.
92b---------------------------------------92b

(e) Rav Sheshes: Beraisa #1 is erroneous! R. Shimon requires the Ba'alim to do Semichah (the Zekenim are considered Ba'alim of Se'irei Avodah Zarah, they atone primarily for them!) Rather, it should say:
1. (Corrected text of Beraisa #1 - R. Yehudah): The Par requires Semichah, Se'irei Avodah Zarah do not;
2. R. Shimon says, Aharon is Somech on the live goat, not on Se'irei Avodah Zarah, rather, the Zekenim are Somech on them.
i. R. Shimon told R. Yehudah, 'Se'irei Avodah Zarah require Semichah - if you heard that they do not, you heard that Aharon is not Somech on them, and we learn this from "Ha'Chai" (not from "ha'Par").'
(f) Question: Why does R. Yehudah need a verse to exclude Se'irei Avodah Zarah - Ravina taught, a tradition teaches that Semichah applies to (exactly) two Korbanos Tzibur!
(g) Version #1 - Rashi - Answer: (He holds that) the verse is not really needed, it is merely an Asmachta.
(h) Version #2 - Rashi Kesav Yad - Answer: (He holds that) the tradition that Semichah applies to two Korbanos Tzibur is not from Sinai (he merely heard it from his Rebbi.)
(i) Question: What is R. Shimon's source that Se'irei Avodah Zarah require Semichah?
(j) Answer (Beraisa - R. Yehudah): "V'Somach Yado Al Rosh ha'Sa'ir" - " - this includes Se'ir Nachshon (voluntary Chata'os of Chanukas ha'Mishkan), they also required Semichah.
(k) R. Shimon says, it includes Se'irei Avodah Zarah.
(l) Question: According to Ravina, who taught that a tradition teaches that Semichah applies to two Korbanos Tzibur, why does R. Shimon need verses?
(m) Answer: The tradition and the verses are both needed:
1. If we only had the verses, one might have thought that Zivchei Shalmei Tzibur also require Semichah, from a Kal va'Chomer:
2. (Mishnah - R. Shimon): There are three Korbanos and three Mitzvos (exactly two Mitzvos apply to each...)
3. Suggestion: A Kal va'Chomer should teach that Shalmei Tzibur require Semichah!
i. Shelamim does not require Tenufah mi'Chayim, yet it requires Semichah - Shalmei Tzibur require Tenufah mi'Chayim, all the more so they should require Semichah!
4. Ravina's tradition refutes this suggestion (since we know that Par He'elam Davar and Se'irei Avodah Zarah require Semichah, there are no others.)
(n) If we only had the tradition, we would not know which Korbanos Tzibur require Semichah (in addition to Par He'elam Davar, in which Semichah is explicit);
1. "V'Somach Yado Al Rosh ha'Sa'ir" refers to a Nasi's Chatas, which is brought for a sin which became known - surely, it teaches about a similar Chatas, i.e. Se'irei Avodah Zarah (and not Zivchei Shalmei Tzibur or the inner goat. Also. "Ha'Chai" teaches that the Zekenim do Semichah on Se'irei Avodah Zarah, not Aharon, so it is considered proper Semichah.)
3) "KORBANOS" OFFERED WITHOUT "SEMICHAH"
(a) (Mishnah): Semichah applies to all Korbanos Yachid, except for Bechor, Ma'aser and Pesach.
(b) (The following Beraisa expounds three occurrences of the word 'Korbano' in Parshas Shelamim.)
(c) (Beraisa): "Korbano" - not a Bechor;
1. Suggestion: A Kal va'Chomer should have taught that it requires Semichah! Shelamim is not Kodesh from birth, yet it requires Semichah - Bechor is Kodesh from birth, all the more so it should require Semichah!
2. Rejection: "Korbano" - not a Bechor.
3. "Korbano" - not Ma'aser (Behemah);
4. Suggestion: A Kal va'Chomer should have taught that it requires Semichah! Kedushas Shelamim does not affect other animals (not Mekudash to be Shelamim), yet it requires Semichah - Kedushas Ma'aser affects the ninth and 11th animals (if they were called 'Asiri (tenth)', but the 10th was not called Asiri), all the more so it should require Semichah!
5. Rejection: "Korbano" - not Ma'aser.
6. "Korbano" - not Pesach;
7. Suggestion: A Kal va'Chomer should have taught that it requires Semichah! Shelamim is voluntary, yet it requires Semichah - Pesach is obligatory, all the more so it should require Semichah!
8. Rejection: "Korbano" - not Pesach.
(d) Question: We cannot learn from Shelamim, for it has a stringency not found in Bechor, Ma'aser and Pesach, it requires Nesachim and Tenufas Chazah v'Shok!
(e) Answer: The teachings are not really learned from 'Korbano', they are mere Asmachtos.
(f) Question: What do we learn from the three times it says 'Korbano'?
(g) Answer: We learn that Reuven may not Somech on Shimon's Korban, that Semichah does not apply to a Nochri's Korban, and that every partner on a Korban must Somech.

   
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