Menachos 94 - STRINGENCIES OF
1) STRINGENCIES OF "SEMICHAH" AND "TENUFAH"
(a) (Mishnah): In some ways Semichah is more stringent than Tenufah, in other ways Tenufah is more stringent:
1. Semichah is more stringent regarding partners - one partner in a Korban can do Tenufah for all of the partners, but everyone must do Semichah himself;
2. A stringency of Tenufah - it applies to Korbanos Yachid and Korbanos Tzibur, alive and slaughtered, to animals and inanimate things (Lachmei Todah and Nesachim), but Semichah does not. (Although Semichah applies to two Korbanos Tzibur, this is only while they are alive. Alternatively, Semichah does not apply to (all) Korbanos Tzibur corresponding to Korbanos Yachid that require Semichah.)
(b) (Gemara - Beraisa): "Korbano" - this teaches that every partner on a Korban must Somech, for a Kal va'Chomer would have taught otherwise:
1. Tenufah applies to slaughtered animals, but all partners on a Korban are not Menif - Semichah does not apply to slaughtered animals, all the more so all partners should not Somech!
2. "Korbano" teaches that every partner is Somech.
(c) Suggestion: A Kal va'Chomer should teach that all partners on a Korban are Menif!
1. Semichah does not apply to slaughtered animals, yet all partners are Somech - Tenufah applies to slaughtered animals, all the more so all partners should Menif!
(d) Rejection: It is impossible for all partners to Menif:
1. If (there are many partners and) all will Menif at the same time, not everyone can touch the Korban, for other people's hands are in the way, this is a Chatzizah!
2. They may not Menif at different times, the Torah obligates Tenufah (singular), i.e. only once!
(e) Question: Semichah does apply to slaughtered animals!
1. (Mishnah): If the Kohen Gadol wants to Makriv (the Tamid), he ascends the ramp with the Segan on his right side; when they are half-way up, the Segan helps him up the rest of the way;
2. The first (of the 11 Kohanim selected in the lottery to offer the Tamid) hands the head and hind leg to the Kohen Gadol, he is Somech on them and throws them onto the fire;
3. The second (of the 11) hands the forelegs to the first, he hands it to the Kohen Gadol, who is Somech on them and throws them onto the fire;
4. The second goes away, all the others do likewise, the Kohen Gadol is Somech and Zorek them;
i. If the Kohen Gadol wants, he does Semichah and others do Zerikah.
(f) Answer (Abaye): That is not real Semichah, it is merely for the honor of the Kohen Gadol.
***** PEREK SHTEI HA'LECHEM ****
2) MAKING THE LOAVES INDIVIDUALLY
(a) The two loaves of Shtei ha'Lechem are kneaded and baked individually;
(b) The (12) loaves of Lechem ha'Panim are kneaded individually and baked two at a time;
(c) There was a mold for them; when they were removed from the oven, they were put into the mold, so they would not break.
(d) (Gemara) Question: What is the source of this?
(e) Answer (Beraisa): "Shnei Esronim Yihyeh ha'Chalah ha'Echas" - this teaches that (loaves of Lechem ha'Panim) are kneaded individually;
1. Question: What is the source for Shtei ha'Lechem?
2. Answer: "Yihyeh" (is extra to teach this.)
3. Question: What is the source that Lechem ha'Panim are baked two at a time?
4. Answer: "V'Samta Osam",
5. Suggestion: Perhaps the same applies to Shtei ha'Lechem!
6. Rejection: "Osam" (Lechem ha'Panim, not Shtei ha'Lechem.)
7. Question: We already used this to teach about baking Lechem ha'Panim!
8. Answer: It could have said "V'Samtam" - rather, it says "V'Samta Osam", therefore we learn both of these.
(f) (Beraisa): "V'Samta Osam" - in a mold;
(g) There are three molds - the dough is placed into one, it is baked in a second mold in the oven, when they were removed from the oven, they were put into a third mold, so they would not break.
(h) Question: Why don't we return the bread (from the oven) into the first mold?
(i) Answer: It became bigger, it would not fit into the first mold again.
3) THE SHAPE OF "LECHEM HA'PANIM"
(a) Question: What was the shape of Lechem ha'Panim?
(b) Answer #1 (R. Chanina): Each loaf was like an open box (missing a top and two opposite walls);
(c) Answer #2 (R. Yochanan): Each loaf was like a Rokedes ship (wide on top and narrow below. (Rashi - it was shaped like a 'V'; Tosfos - each end was vertical, the middle was (slightly) inclined, like a ship, like the top of the second picture in Tosfos.)
(d) Question: According to R. Chanina, it is flat, we understand how the Bazichei Levonah rested on it;
1. But according to R. Yochanan, they would not rest nicely!
(e) Answer: (He says that) there was a place in (each) top loaf hollowed out to hold the Bazichim.
(f) (On top of each loaf (except for the top loaf) were three (or two) poles to separate it from the loaf above.)
(g) Question: According to R. Chanina, we understand how the poles rested on the loaves;
1. But according to R. Yochanan, only one pole would rest (in the ridge)!
(h) Answer: The loaves were shaped with small ridges to hold the poles in place.
(i) Question: According to R. Chanina, we understand how the Snifin (upright supports) support the bread (Rashi - it rested on ledges coming out of the Snifim; Tosfos - the Snifin held the bottom loaf in place);
1. But according to R. Yochanan, how do the Snifin support the (R. Gershom - folds of the) bread?
(j) Answer: The Snifin were shaped like semi-circles, the bread rested on top of them.
(k) Question: According to R. Yochanan, we understand the need for Snifin (the loaves cannot balance by themselves);
1. But according to R. Chanina, why are Snifin needed?
(l) Answer: They support the weight of the bread - if not, the bottom loaves would break from the weight of the top ones.
(m) Question: According to R. Yochanan, we understand how Snifin rested on the Shulchan (under the slope of the breads);
1. But according to R. Chanina, the breads are flush on the Shulchan, there is no place for the Snifin!
(n) Answer: The Snifin rest on the ground.
1. (R. Aba bar Mamal): According to R. Yochanan, the Snifin rest on the Shulchan; according to R. Chanina, the Snifin rest on the ground.
(o) Question: Like which Amora is the following teaching?
1. (Rav Yehudah): The bread supports the Snifin, and the Snifin support the bread.
(p) Answer: It is like R. Yochanan.