Menachos 96 - PLACEMENT OF
1) PLACEMENT OF "SHTEI HA'LECHEM" ON THE "SHULCHAN"
(a) (Mishnah): The kneading, Arichah and baking of Chavitei Kohen Gadol is done inside, they are Docheh Shabbos;
(b) Grinding the wheat and sifting it is not Docheh Shabbos.
(c) R. Akiva says, the general rule is, only those things that cannot be done before Shabbos are Docheh Shabbos.
(d) Everything done to Menachos, (kneading and Arichah) is in a Kli Shares inside, nothing is done outside.
(e) Shtei ha'Lechem are seven Tefachim long, four Tefachim wide, the 'horns' (protrusions from the corners) are four Etzba'os;
(f) Lechem ha'Panim is 10 Tefachim long, five Tefachim wide, its horns are seven Etzba'os.
(g) R. Yehudah says, the way to remember is 'ZeDaD-YeHaZ' (the Gematri'a of these letters is 7-4-4, 10-5-7.)
(h) Ben Zoma says, "V'Nasata Al ha'Shulchan Lechem Panim Lefanai Tamid" - the bread has Panim (walls; alternatively - corners, i.e. horns.)
(i) R. Yehudah says, the Shulchan is 10 Tefachim long, five Tefachim wide, just like Lechem ha'Panim; the length of each loaf runs along the width of the Shulchan, extra two and a half Tefachim on each end of the loaf were (already from when it was formed into a loaf) bent (upwards, leaving five Tefachim in the middle), the loaves exactly cover the width of the Shulchan. (There are two piles, they exactly cover the length of the Shulchan.)
(j) R. Meir says, the Shulchan is 12 Tefachim by six, Lechem ha'Panim is 10 by five; their length is along the width of the Shulchan, the extra two Tefachim on each end are bent, the loaves exactly cover the width of the Shulchan;
1. The middle two Tefachim of the (length of the) Shulchan were empty, to allow ventilation so the bread would not become moldy.
2. Aba Sha'ul says, the Bazichei Levonah were placed in those two Tefachim.
3. Chachamim: "V'Nasata *Al* ha'Ma'areches Levonah Zakah" - it must be *on* the piles of bread!
4. Aba Sha'ul: It says "V'*Al*av Mate Menasheh"! (Clearly, they did not stand on top of Shevet Efrayim, 'Al' merely connotes 'near'.)
(k) There were four golden Snifim, Mefutzalim, to hold the piles, two Snifim for each pile;
(l) There were 14 poles for each pile (three (or two) between each bread and the one above it), like hollow half-reeds, the arrangement and removal of the poles is not Docheh Shabbos;
1. Rather, on Erev Shabbos the poles are removed from the breads, the poles (Rashba - the breads) are left (Tosfos - on the floor) along the length of the Shulchan. (On Motzei Shabbos the poles are inserted between the new breads.)
(m) All Kelim in the Mikdash are placed lengthwise towards the length of the Mikdash (east-west.)
(n) (Gemara - Mishnah): Everything done to Menachos is done in a Kli Shares inside.
(o) Question: What is the source of this?
(p) Answer (Rebbi): "...Ha'Makom Asher Yevashlu Sham ha'Kohanim Es ha'Asham v'Es ha'Chatas Asher Yofu Es ha'Minchah l'Vilti Hotzi El he'Chatzer ha'Chitzonah" - Minchah is like Asham and Chatas, just like they must be cooked in Klei Shares, also Minchah (must be baked in a Kli Shares.)
2) THE "SHULCHAN" IS "MEKADESH" ITS AIRSPACE
(a) (Mishnah - R. Yehudah): The Shulchan is 10 Tefachim long...
(b) (R. Yochanan): According to R. Yehudah, each loaf is folded two and a half Tefachim, the Shulchan is Mekadesh 15 Tefachim above its surface (the height of the six loaves in each pile); according to R. Meir, each loaf is folded two Tefachim, it is Mekadesh 12 Tefachim above its surface. (It is not Mekadesh them to be offered, only to become Nifsalim.)
(c) Question: The top bread is higher than this, he did not account for the thickness of the poles!
(d) Answer: There are indentations in the bread into which the poles fit, they do not raise the bread.
(e) Question: The sole purpose of the poles is to allow ventilation so the bread would not become moldy - if there is no space between the breads, they will become moldy!
(f) Answer: They raise the bread a small amount.
(g) Question: In any case, why does R. Yochanan ignore that small amount?
(h) Answer: Since the (five) spaces between the breads add up to less than a Tefach, he did not bother to mention it.
(i) Question: The Shulchan is also Mekadesh the Bazichim, they rest on the top bread, this is more than 15 (or 12 and a half) Tefachim above the Shulchan!
(j) Answer: The Bazichim rest *inside* the bread, not on top of it.
(k) Question: There were corners on top of the bread, this adds to the height!
(l) Answer: The corners do not point upwards, rather, inwards, the bread above it rests on them.
(m) Question: The breads rest on the Misgeret (rim) around the Shulchan, this adds to the height!
(n) Answer #1: R. Yochanan's teaching is according to the opinion that the rim is below (the top surface of the Shulchan);
(o) Answer #2: According to the opinion that the rim is above, it slopes outward, so the bread rests on the Shulchan itself.
(p) Tana'im argue about where the rim was.
1. (Beraisa - R. Yosi): There were no Snifin (Sefas Emes - i.e. they were distanced from the Shulchan), the rim (above) holds the (bottom) bread in place.
2. Chachamim: The rim was below.
3) A REVERSIBLE TABLETOP
(a) (R. Yochanan): According to Chachamim, the rim was below - we learn from this that a reversible table (it may be flipped over and used) is Tamei (i.e. Mekabel Tum'ah. Rashi - Normally, Klei Etz (wooden vessels) without an interior are Tehorim - since the Shulchan is wide, it is fitting for Medras (to sit or lie on), therefore it is Tamei. Tosfos - since a table services people and vessels, it is Tamei);
(b) According to R. Yosi, the rim was above, we do not know the law of a reversible table (we cannot learn from the Shulchan, it had an interior.)
(c) Question: This implies that the Shulchan is Mekabel Tum'ah - it is a Kli Etz made to be stationary, such vessels are Tehorim!
1. Question: What is the reason?
2. Answer: The Torah equates them to Sak (a vessel of sackcloth, which is Mekabel Tum'ah) - just like Sak is moved when empty and full, also wooden vessels are Tamei only if they are moved when empty and full.
(d) Answer: Reish Lakish teaches that the Shulchan is moved even when it is full:
1. (Reish Lakish) Question: What do we learn from "Al ha'Shulchan ha'Tahor"?
2. Answer: (It is Tamei because it is moved -) this teaches that they would hold up the Shulchan on the festivals, when everyone comes to the Mikdash, and say 'See your dearness to Hash-m!'
i. (R. Yehoshua ben Levi): A great miracle was done with Lechem ha'Panim - it was as warm (or fresh) when taken off the Shulchan as it was when placed on it a week earlier - "Lashum Lechem Chom b'Yom Chilakcho".
(e) Question: Why does Tum'ah of the Shulchan depend on being moved - it is covered with gold!
1. (Mishnah): If a table with a wooden or leather top was broken or covered with stone (which is not Mekabel Tum'ah):
i. If there remains a place (without stone) to hold cups, it is Tamei; if not, it is Tahor;
ii. R. Yehudah says, if there remains a place to hold pieces of meat, it is Tamei; if not, it is Tahor.
iii. (This shows that the Kli has the law of the covering; metal vessels, even stationary, are Tamei!)
(f) Answer #1: The Kli gets the law of the covering only if the covering is nailed on (the gold was not nailed onto the Shulchan.)
(g) Rejection: R. Yochanan taught that this is not true.
1. Questions (Reish Lakish): Does this depend on whether or not the covering is nailed on? Does it depend on whether or not the rim is covered?
2. Answer (R. Yochanan): It does not matter whether or not the covering is nailed on, or whether or not the rim is covered.