Menachos 100 -
(a) Question (Chizkiyah): What does it mean "V'Af Hasischa mi'Pi Tzar..."?
(b) Answer: Hash-m ways are unlike those of people - people entice others (to sin), leading them from the way of life to the way of death;
1. Hash-m entices (to repent), to go from the way of death to the way of life - "V'Af Hasischa mi'Pi Tzar" - from Gehinom, which has a narrow opening, to hold in the smoke;
2. Suggestion: Perhaps all of Gehinom is narrow, just like the opening!
3. Rejection: "Hemik Hirchiv" (it is very wide.)
4. Suggestion: Perhaps it is not for kings (i.e. Chachamim that later sinned!)
5. Rejection: "Gam Hi la'Melech Huchan".
6. Suggestion: Perhaps there is no wood there (to make a lasting fire!)
7. Rejection: "Medurasah Esh v'Etzim Harbe".
8. Suggestion: Perhaps the only reward of Torah is that is saves (those who remain righteous) from Gehinom!
9. Rejection: "V'Nachas Shulchanecha Malei Dashen" (you will be rewarded with a table full of nice things. The verse discusses bearing afflictions - perhaps we learn that the same (or even more) applies to Torah, since its reward is equal to all the Mitzvos.)
2) WHO ATE THE "SE'IR CHATAS"?
(a) (Mishnah): When Yom Kipur is on Shabbos...(when it is on Erev Shabbos, Bavliyim would eat the Se'ir Chatas raw.)
(b) (Rabah bar bar Chanah): They were not really Bavliyim, they were Alexandriyim - because Chachamim of Eretz Yisrael hate Bavliyim (because they did not return to Eretz Yisrael with Ezra), they called them Bavliyim (i.e. gluttons. Even though it is a Mitzvah to prevent Nosar, these Kohanim used to eat it raw every year, even when it could be cooked.)
(c) Support (Beraisa - R. Yosi): They were not really Bavliyim, they were Alexandriyim - because Chachamim of Eretz Yisrael hate Bavliyim, they called them Bavliyim.
(d) R. Yehudah: You comforted me (I am from Bavel.)
3) IMPROPER "AVODAH" OF "LECHEM HA'PANIM"
(a) (Mishnah): If the bread was put on the Shulchan on Shabbos and the Bazichim were put on after Shabbos and Huktar the next Shabbos, both are Pesulim (the Bazichim are Mechusar Zeman, therefore they do not permit the bread), Pigul, Nosar and Tamei cannot apply to the bread (for it was never permitted);
(b) The same applies if the bread and Bazichim were put on on Shabbos and the Bazichim were Huktar the next day.
(c) The same applies if the bread and Bazichim were put on after Shabbos and the Bazichim were Huktar the next Shabbos;
1. Rather, they should leave the bread (and Bazichim) on the Shulchan until the next Shabbos, for no Pesul comes from leaving it on the Shulchan for many days (Rashi - before the first Shabbos; Aruch - i.e. a year.)
(d) (Gemara - Mishnah): The appointee told them to see if it is time (light enough) for slaughter; when it is time, the lookout says 'Barkai (is it light?)'
(e) Matasya ben Shmuel (the appointee) would ask him '(Is the sky lit up) until Chevron?', he would answer 'Yes'.
1. Question: Why was this necessary?
2. Answer: Once, the moon came up and they mistook its light for daylight; they slaughtered the Tamid, (then they realized their mistake, it was Pasul,) it was burned in Beis ha'Sereifah.
(f) (On Yom Kipur,) when he said 'Barkai' the Kohen Gadol would immerse.
1. (The Mishnah gives another law of preparation for Avodah.) A rule for Avodah in the Mikdash - one who excretes must immerse; one who urinates must Mekadesh (wash his hands and feet.)
(g) (R. Avin's father - Beraisa): Not only the Tamid, but even Melikas Olas ha'Of or Kemitzas Minchah at night is (Pasul, it is) burned in Beis ha'Sereifah.
(h) Question: We understand, if Melikah was Pasul, it cannot be fixed;
1. But why is the Minchah Pasul - return the Kometz and do Kemitzah again during the day!
(i) Answer #1 (R. Avin's father): Klei Shares are Mekadesh even at the wrong time (since this Kometz became Kodesh, a second Kometz cannot be taken.)
(j) Question (Beraisa): Anything offered during the day becomes Kodesh (if put in a Kli Shares) during the day, anything offered at (even) night (such as Minchas Nesachim) becomes Kodesh during the day or night.
1. Inference: Anything offered during the day becomes Kodesh during the day, but not at night!
(k) Answer: It does not become Kodesh to be offered, it becomes Kodesh to be Nifsal.
(l) Question (R. Zeira - Mishnah): If the bread and Bazichim were put on after Shabbos and the Bazichim were Huktar the next Shabbos, it is Pasul;
1. Rather, they should leave the bread on the Shulchan until the next Shabbos, for no Pesul comes from leaving it on the Shulchan for many days.
2. Summation of question: If Klei Shares are Mekadesh at the wrong time, the bread should become Pasul (on account of Linah) after Shabbos!
(m) Rabah: This is a good question - however, the teaching of R. Avin's father was a Beraisa, we must find an answer!
(n) Answer #2 (to Question (h) - Rabah): (Really, Klei Shares are not Mekadesh at the wrong time;) the Tana holds that night is not considered Mechusar Zeman, but days (i.e. Lechem ha'Panim put on the Shulchan on Motzei Shabbos, six days too early) is considered Mechusar Zeman.
(o) Question: In any case, when Shabbos night comes, it should become Kodesh (it is now the proper day, just it is night instead of day - we said that this is not Mechusar Zeman) to become Pasul (at the end of the coming Shabbos night, for it was on the Shulchan from Shabbos to Shabbos!)
(p) Answer #1 (Rava): The case is, the bread was removed from the Shulchan before (the first) Shabbos night.
(q) Answer #2 (Rav Ashi or Mar Zutra): Even if the bread was left on the Shulchan on Shabbos night, it does not become Kodesh then - since it did not become Kodesh when placed on the Shulchan, it is as if a monkey put it on (it does not become Kodesh until the proper time.)
4) IS BAKING "DOCHEH" YOM TOV?
(a) (Mishnah): Shtei ha'Lechem are eaten on Shavu'os - this is never before the second day (from when they were baked), and never later than the third day;
1. If they were baked on Erev Shavu'os (it was not Shabbos), they are eaten on the second day; if (they were baked on the day before that because) Erev Shavu'os was Shabbos, they are eaten on the third day.
(b) Lechem ha'Panim is never eaten before the ninth day, and never later than the 11th day;
1. If they were baked on Erev Shabbos (it was not Yom Tov), they are eaten on the following Shabbos, the ninth day; if (they were baked on Thursday because) Erev Shabbos was Yom Tov), they are eaten on the 10th day; (if they were baked on Wednesday because) Rosh Hashanah was on Thursday and Friday), they are eaten on the 11th day.
2. (Rashi - if the first day of Rosh Hashanah was Thursday, the following Shabbos is Yom Kipur, they are eaten the following night, but this is considered the 11th day, for regarding Kodshim the night is a continuation of the previous day. Tosfos - if Thursday was Mekudash to be Rosh Hashanah, the next day is Chol (mid'Oraisa), fresh Lechem ha'Panim would be baked on Friday! The Mishnah discusses when Thursday was not Mekudash to be Rosh Hashanah (but we could not bake the Lechem ha'Panim lest witnesses would come and the day would be Mekudash retroactively), the bread baked on Wednesday is eaten the next Shabbos, Erev Yom Kipur.)
(c) The baking is not Docheh Shabbos or Yom Tov;
(d) R. Shimon ben Gamliel says, the baking is Docheh (a regular) Yom Tov, but not Yom Kipur.
(e) (Gemara - Ravina): Do not say that the opinion that forbids offering Nedarim and Nedavos on Yom Tov agrees that it is permitted mid'Oraisa, but a Rabbinic decree forbids this lest people will delay bringing them until Yom Tov (it is improper to leave Melachah to be done on Yom Tov; alternatively, we are concerned lest they offer it after the allowed time and transgress 'Bal Te'acher');
1. Rather, it is forbidden mid'Oraisa, like we find regarding the baking of Shtei ha'Lechem and Lechem ha'Panim - the first Tana forbids it on Yom Tov, and we cannot say that this is a decree lest one delay baking them!
***** PEREK HA'MENACHOS VEHA'NESACHIM ****
5) WHICH "KODSHIM" MAY BE REDEEMED?
(a) (Mishnah): If Menachos and Nesachim became Teme'im before they were Mekudashos in a Kli Shares, they can be redeemed; (b) If they became Teme'im after Kidush, they cannot be redeemed.
(c) Birds, wood, Levonah and Klei Shares cannot be redeemed [(R. Gershom - even) after becoming Tamei - Shitah Mekubetzes deletes this from the text], for redemption (of Kedushas ha'Guf, intrinsic Kedushah) applies only to animals.
(d) (Gemara - Shmuel): Menachos and Nesachim may be redeemed before Kidush in a Kli Shares even if they are Tehorim.
1. Question: What is the reason?
2. Answer: Until Kidush Kli, they are considered Kedushas Damim (only its value is Kodesh), which may be redeemed.
(e) Question: The Mishnah says, *if they became Teme'im* they can be redeemed!
(f) Answer: Even if they are Tehorim, they can be redeemed - the Mishnah discussed Teme'im for parallel structure to the Seifa, if they became Teme'im after Kidush, they cannot be redeemed.
(g) Objection: The law of the Seifa is obvious, Kedushas ha'Guf may not be redeemed!
(h) Answer: We must teach it - one might have thought, since a Ba'al Mum is called 'Tamei', Tamei Kodshim are like a Ba'al Mum:
1. Even though a Zevach has Kedushas ha'Guf, it may be redeemed through a Mum - the same should apply to Tamei Kodshim!
2. The Seifa teaches, this is not so, the Torah does not compare a Ba'al Mum to Tamei Kodshim after Kidush, for the latter may not be redeemed.