Chulin 21 - CUTTING THE NECKBONE BEFORE THE SIMANIM
1) CUTTING THE NECKBONE BEFORE THE SIMANIM
(a) Question: In any case, how do we answer Rava's question?
(b) Answer (Rava): In Melikah, one breaks the neckbone without cutting much flesh (so the bird is not a Neveilah before cutting the Simanim).
(c) R. Ami cited Ze'iri's teaching; R. Zeira asked Rava's question. R. Ami pondered, then gave Rava's answer.
1. Support (Beraisa): In Melikah of a Chatas, one cuts the spine and neckbone without cutting most of the flesh. When he reaches the Kaneh or Veshet, he cuts one Siman or its majority, and most of the flesh with it;
i. In an Olah, he cuts both Simanim or the majority of both.
2. Question: Like whom is this Beraisa?
i. It is not like Chachamim - they say that the entire Siman(im) must be cut;
ii. It is not like R. Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon - he says, the entire Siman(im) should not be cut, only the majority!
3. Answer #1: The Beraisa teaches, according to Chachamim, he cuts the entire Siman(im); according to R. Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon, he cuts the majority.
4. Answer #2: It is like R. Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon - it says, he cuts a (substantial) majority of the Siman(im), which is like cutting the entire Siman(im).
2) WHAT MAKES A "NEVEILAH"?
(a) (Rav Yehudah): If the neckbone (of a person) and the majority of surrounding flesh was cut, he is Metamei b'Ohel (anything above, below, or under the same roof as him becomes Tamei, for he is dead).
1. Question: But Eli died when his neckbone broke, even though the flesh was not cut!
2. Answer: An old person is different - "His neckbone broke and he died, for he was very old".
(b) (R. Shmuel bar Nachmani): If a person was torn lengthwise like a fish, he is Metamei b'Ohel.
1. (R. Shmuel bar Yitzchak): This is only if he was cut from the back.
(c) (Shmuel): If an animal was cut into two pieces, it is a Neveilah.
(d) (R. Elazar): If the thigh and its cavity were removed, the animal is a Neveilah.
(e) Question: What is the case that the cavity was removed?
(f) Answer (Rava): When it crouches, one can see that something is missing.
(g) (Mishnah): If the head was chopped off, even if it is still quivering, it is a Neveilah.
1. This is like a lizard's tail, it keeps quivering even after it was cut off.
(h) Question: What does it mean, 'the head was chopped off'?
(i) Answer #1 (Reish Lakish): Literally, it was totally severed.
(j) Version #1 - Answer #2 (Rav Asi): The Simanim were cut like is done to an Olas ha'Of.
1. R. Yirmeyah (to Rav Asi): Do you mean like Chachamim (the Simanim are totally severed), and you agree with Reish Lakish; or, do you mean like R. Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon (the majority of the each Siman is severed), and you argue with Reish Lakish?
2. Rav Asi: I mean like R. Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon.
(k) Version #2 - Answer #2 (Rav Asi): The (majority of the) Simanim were cut like is done to Olas ha'Of according to R. Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon.
3) HOW "OLAS HA'OF" IS OFFERED
(a) (Beraisa): "The second (bird) will be offered as an Olah, like the law" - like the law of Chatas Behemah.
1. Question: Why don't we say, like Chatas ha'Of (to teach that he need not divide the head from the body)?
2. Answer: "He will offer *it*" - the Torah distinguishes between Chatas ha'Of and Olas ha'Of.
3. Rather, Olas ha'Of is equated to Chatas Behemah, teaching that it cannot come from money of Ma'aser Sheni, and it must be offered by day and with the right hand.
4. Suggestion: We should say, just like it suffices to cut the majority of both Simanim of Chatas Behemah, also of Olas ha'Of!
5. Rejection: "U'Malak...v'Hiktir (he will do Melikah and he will burn)" - just like the head and body of Olas ha'Of are burned separately on the Mizbe'ach, also Melikah separates the head from the body (i.e. the Simanim are cut entirely).
(b) R. Yishmael says, "like the law" refers to the law of Chatas ha'Of;
1. Just like Melikah of a Chatas is done on the back of the neck, also Melikah of an Olah.
2. Suggestion: We should also say, just like one leaves the head and body of Chatas ha'Of connected, the same applies to Olas ha'Of!
3. Rejection: "He will offer *it*" (Olas ha'Of is not offered like Chatas ha'Of).