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08-03-2011
Title:
Chulin 27 - HOW MUCH MUST BE SLAUGHTERED

Message:
1) HOW MUCH MUST BE SLAUGHTERED

(a) (Mishnah): If one slaughters one Siman of a bird, or two Simanim of an animal, this is Kosher;
1. (Cutting) the majority of a Siman is like (cutting) the whole Siman.
(b) R. Yehudah says, he must also cut the veins.
(c) If he slaughtered half a Siman of a bird, or one Siman and half the other Siman of an animal, this is invalid;
(d) The majority of one (Siman) of a bird, or the majority of two of an animal is Kosher.
(e) (Gemara) Question: The phrase 'If one slaughters' connotes b'Diavad - in an animal, what more should he cut than the two Simanim?!
(f) Answer #1: This was said on account of one Siman of a bird (which is b'Diavad).
(g) Answer #2: This was said on account of 'The majority of a Siman is like the whole Siman' (which is b'Diavad).
2) HOW WE KNOW WHERE TO SLAUGHTER
(a) Question: What is the source that slaughter is done from the neck?
(b) Answer #1 (Rav Kahana): "V'Shochat (he will slaughter) the bull" - from the place that Shach (it bends), Chatehu (make it permissible or Metaher it).
1. Question: How do we know that 'Chatei' pertains to Taharah?
2. Answer #1: "V'Chitei (he will Metaher) the house (that had Tzara'as)".
3. Answer #2: "*Tachteni* (purify me) with hyssop, and I will be Tahor".
4. Question: The tail of an animal also bends - perhaps that is the place of slaughter!
5. Answer: "It bends" connotes that it is normally erect.
6. Question: Perhaps slaughter is from the ear!
7. Answer: (From Kodshim we know that) slaughter must cause Dam ha'Nefesh (the blood that leaves when the animal dies) to come out.
8. Question (#1): Perhaps he begins cutting at the ear, and continues until he reaches the place of Dam ha'Nefesh!
i. (Rashi - Question #2; Tosfos - counter-question): How do we know that pausing, Drasah, Chaladah, Hagramah and Ikur invalid slaughter?
ii. Answer: You must say, these are a tradition from Moshe from Sinai.
9. Answer: Also, a tradition from Sinai teaches that slaughter is from the neck!
10. Question: What does the verse ("v'Shochat") teach?
11. Answer: He should not sever the head (Rashi - by doing Drasah; Tosfos - by cutting from the back of the neck).
(c) Answer #2 (Rav Yeimar): "V'Zovachto" - from the place that Zav (it flows), Chatei (break) it.
1. Question: How do we know that 'Chatei' pertains to breaking?
2. Answer: "Do not be afraid and do not Techas".
3. Question: Perhaps slaughter is at the nose, mucus flows from there!
4. Answer: We require that it flows as a result of being cut; mucus flows by itself.
5. Question (#1): Perhaps he cuts the heart!
i. (Rashi - Question #2; Tosfos - counter-question): Shehiyah, Drasah, Chaladah, Hagramah and Ikur - how do we know that these invalid slaughter?
ii. Answer: You must say, these are a tradition from Sinai.
6. Answer: Also, tradition teaches that slaughter is from the neck!
7. Question: What does "V'Zovachto" teach?
8. Answer: He should not sever the head (Rashi - by doing Drasah; Tosfos - by cutting from the back of the neck).
(d) Answer #3 (Tana d'Vei R. Yishmael): "v'Shochat" - this may be read 'v'Sochat', from the place that Soch (it speaks), Chatei (Metaher) it.
1. Question: Let us say, this is from the tongue!
2. Answer: We require that through slaughter, Dam ha'Nefesh leaves the animal.
3. Question: Perhaps he begins cutting at the tongue, and continues until he reaches the Dam ha'Nefesh!
i. (Rashi - Question #2; Tosfos - counter-question): Shehiyah, Drasah, Chaladah, Hagramah and Ikur - how do we know that these invalid slaughter?
ii. Answer: You must say, these are a tradition.
4. Answer: Also, tradition teaches that slaughter is from the neck!
5. Question: What does "v'Shochat" teach?
6. Answer: He should not sever the head (Rashi - by doing Drasah; Tosfos - by cutting from the back of the neck).
(e) Answer #4 (Beraisa - R. Chiya): "The Kohanim will arrange the sections of the animal...the head and the Pader (Chelev)".
1. Question: Why were the head and Chelev singled out - they are included in the sections! 2. Answer: "He will flay the Olah and dissect" - one might have thought, only parts that are flayed are considered sections - "Its head and its Pader" includes the head, even though it was already severed.
i. From this we infer that slaughter is from the neck.
3. Question: The Tana began asking about the verse "*The* head and *the*Pader", but then expounded the verse "*Its* head and *its* Pader"!
4. Answer: The Beraisa teaches as follows:
i. Question: How do we know that the head is offered, for it was already severed?
ii. Answer: We learn from "The head and the Pader".
iii. Question: What does "Its head and its Pader" teach?
iv. Answer (Beraisa): "Its head and its Pader he will arrange" - this teaches that the head and Chelev are offered first.
27b---------------------------------------27b

5. Question: What do we learn from "The Pader" mentioned in the first verse?
6. Answer (Beraisa): He covers the slaughtered neck with the Chelev and offers them - this is a dignified way to serve Hash-m.
(f) Answer #5: We learn the place of slaughter like R. Eliezer does:
1. (Beraisa) Question: "This is the law of animals and fowl" - in what respect do they have the same law?
i. Their Tum'os are different - the Neveilah of an animal is Metamei one who touches or moves it, not one who eats it (if it does not touch him externally), whereas the Neveilah of a Tahor bird is Metamei one who eats it (and even makes his clothes Tamei), not one who touches or moves it!
2. Answer #1: Rather, just like animals require slaughter, also fowl.
i. Suggestion: Just like the majority of both Simanim of an animal must be slaughtered, like of birds!
ii. Rejection: "This" (applies only to animals).
3. Answer #2 (R. Eliezer): The Torah teaches that just like (Korbanos of) birds become permitted (by Melikah) from the neck, also animals become permitted (by slaughter) from the neck.
i. Suggestion: Perhaps animals are slaughtered from the back of the neck, similar to Melikah of birds!
ii. Rejection: "U'Malak its head on the back of the neck" - the head (of a bird) is cut from the back of the neck, not of animals.
(g) Question: What does R. Eliezer learn from "This"?
(h) Answer: One might have thought, just like Korbanos of birds are permitted through cutting one Siman, also animals - "This" teaches that this is not so.
3) ONE "SIMAN" SUFFICES FOR BIRDS
(a) (Bar Kapara): "This is the law of animals and birds" - the Torah mentioned birds between animals and fish.
1. We cannot say that both Simanim of a bird must be slaughtered, for birds are Hukshu (written next) to fish (the law of birds should resemble that of fish, which do not need any slaughter)!
2. We cannot say that neither Siman of a bird need be slaughtered, for birds are Hukshu to animals (their law should resemble that of animals, in which both Simanim must be slaughtered)!
3. Rather, one Siman must be slaughtered.
(b) Question: What is the source that fish need not be slaughtered?
1. Suggestion: "Ha'Tzon u'Vakar Yishachet...Degei ha'Yam Ye'asef" - it suffices Le'esof (to gather) fish.
2. Question: If so, we should say the same regarding Slav (the fowl given in the Midbar), about which it says "Va'Ya'asfu Es ha'Slav"!
i. But we said above, since birds are Hukshu to animals, one Siman must be slaughtered!
3. Answer: "Ha'Tzon..." mentions gathering fish as the analog of slaughtering animals; "Va'Ya'asfu Es ha'Slav" does not correlate this to slaughter, so we do not learn from it.
(c) (Uvar of Galil): Animals were created (in the six days of creation) from the dry land, both of their Simanim must be slaughtered; fish were created from the water, they are permitted without any slaughter;
1. Birds were created from the mud, one Siman must be slaughtered to permit them.
2. Support (Rav Shmuel Kaputka'ah): Birds have scales like fish (their creation from the mud is manifest in them, presumably their law resembles that of fish).
(d) Question (a Nochri mayor): It says, "The waters will swarm with living swarming things, and birds will fly" - this shows, birds were created from water;
1. It also says "Hash-m formed from the ground, every beast of the field, and all birds of the sky" - this shows, birds were created from the ground!
(e) Version #1 - Answer #1 (to the mayor - R. Yochanan ben Zakai (Tosfos; Rashi - R. Gamliel)): They were created from the mud.
(f) Answer #2 (for his puzzled Talmidim): I did not give him the true answer. Really, they were created from the water; they latter verse only mentions them to say (as the verse concludes) that Adam gave names to them.
(g) Version #2: He told the mayor that they were created from the water (as Answer #2 above);
1. He told his Talmidim that "Hash-m formed" also refers to birds; they were created from the mud.
4) DOES THE TORAH REQUIRE SLAUGHTER OF BIRDS?
(a) (Rav Yehudah): "He will spill (its blood)" - the Torah does not require slaughter of birds, it suffices to spill the blood.
(b) Question: If so, we should say the same about Chayos (which are in the same verse)!
(c) Answer: Chayos are equated to Korbanos that became blemished (therefore, they must be slaughtered).
(d) Question: But "This is the law of animals and birds" equates the laws of animals and birds!
(e) Answer: "He will spill" teaches that regarding slaughter, birds are different.
(f) Question: Why not say that this verse teaches that regarding slaughter, Chayos are different than blemished Korbanos (and do not require slaughter)!
(g) Answer: "He will spill" is written next to birds, it is more reasonable to learn the former way.
(h) Question (Mishnah): If slaughter was invalid and the animal became a Neveilah; or if he did Nechirah or uprooted the Simanim, he is exempt from covering the blood.
1. If the Torah does not require slaughter of birds, Nechirah of birds is like slaughter of Chayos, he should have to cover the blood!
(i) Answer: The Mishnah does not discuss birds - rather, it says that Nechirah of Chayos does not require covering the blood.
(j) Question (Beraisa): If one slaughters because he needs the blood, he must cover it;
1. To exempt himself from having to cover it, he should uproot the Simanim or do Nechirah.
2. Suggestion: The Beraisa discusses birds, the blood is needed on account of worms that infest wool.
(k) Answer: No, it discusses Chayos; the blood is needed for dye.

   
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