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(a) (R. Yanai): The spinal cord of a bird extends until below the wings (if the majority is cut, it is Tereifah);
(b) (Reish Lakish): It extends until between the wings.
(c) Ben Pazi was checking a bird. He checked until between the wings, and was called to the Nasi's house; he went.
1. Ula: I don't know if he holds like Reish Lakish, that no more needs to be checked, or if he stopped in the middle out of respect for the Nasi.
(a) (Mishnah): If the liver was removed...
(b) Inference: If anything remains, even less than k'Zayis (an olive's worth), it is Kosher.
(c) Contradiction (Mishnah): If k'Zayis of the liver remains, it is Kosher.
(d) Answer (Rav Yosef): One Mishnah is like R. Chiya, the other is like R. Shimon bar Rebbi.
1. Version #1: R. Chiya would throw out an animal if less than k'Zayis of the liver remained; R. Shimon bar Rebbi would eat it.
2. Version #2: R. Chiya would not eat liver (for he did not consider it such a vital organ); R. Shimon bar Rebbi would eat it (since it is a crucial organ, it is healthy to eat; (end of Version #2)
i. Presumably, R. Shimon holds that if a tiny amount of the liver remained, it could not heal, the animal would be Tereifah).
ii. A way to remember the opinions - rich people (i.e. the son of the Nasi) economize.
(e) (R. Zeira): A k'Zayis of the liver must remain in the area of the gall bladder.
(f) (Rav Ada bar Ahavah): It must remain in the place the liver is suspended from.
(g) (Rav Papa): We are concerned for both opinions, k'Zayis must remain in each place.
(h) Questions (R. Yirmeyah): What if the k'Zayis is not all in one place? What if it is stretched out in a strip?
(i) Question (Rav Ashi): What if it is like a thin sheet?
1. These questions are unresolved.
(j) Question (R. Zerika): If the liver is uprooted in several places, but still clings to the surrounding Chelev, what is the law?
(k) Answer (R. Ami): Since it is intact, k'Zayis remains in both places, it is Kosher.
(a) (Mishnah): A punctured lung...
(b) Version #1 (Rav, Shmuel and Rav Asi): If the outer membrane is punctured, it is Tereifah.
(c) Version #2 (Rav, Shmuel and Rav Asi): If the inner membrane is (also) punctured, it is Tereifah.
(d) If only the outer membrane is punctured, surely the lower one protects (so the animal is not Tereifah), like Rava taught.
1. (Rava): If the outer membrane of the lung was peeled off but the red inner membrane remains, it is Kosher.

(e) Question: If only the inner membrane was punctured, does the outer one protect?
(f) Answer: Rav Acha and Ravina argued - one said that it protects, the other said it does not.
1. The Halachah is, it protects, like Rav Yosef.
2. (Rav Yosef): If when one blows into the lungs it sounds as if air is escaping, he must check it;
3. If he knows where the sound comes from - he puts a feather, piece of straw or some spit there. If there really is a hole, it will move when he blows.
4. If he does not know where the sound comes from, he puts the lungs in a basin of lukewarm water and blows into the lungs.
i. Hot water may not be used - this would constrict the hole.
ii. Cold water should not be used - this could cause the outer membrane to tear.
5. If he sees bubbles, there is a hole, it is Tereifah;
i. If there are no bubbles, the noise was due to a tear in the inner membrane alone, it is Kosher.
(g) (Rava): If the outer membrane of the lung was peeled off but the red inner membrane remains, it is Kosher.
(h) (Rava): If part of the lung turned red, it is Kosher; if it all turned red, it is Tereifah.
(i) Objection (Ravina): You say that if only part turns red it is Kosher, because it can get better;
1. Also if the entire lung turns red, it can get better!
2. (Beraisa): If one wounds a Sheretz (except for the eight Sheratzim listed in the Torah) on Shabbos he is exempt unless blood comes out, even if the blood is recognizable in the skin. (This shows that redness does not indicate a puncture.)
3. Suggestion: Perhaps Rava learns from the eight Sheratzim.
i. (Beraisa): If one wounds one of the eight Sheratzim on Shabbos he is liable if the blood is recognizable in the skin, even if it did not come out.
4. Rejection: If so, even a redness in part of the lungs should be Tereifah!
(j) (Ravina): Rather, whether part or all is red, it is Kosher (Rashi; Tosfos - Tereifah).
(k) (Rava): If a lung partially dried up, it is Tereifah.
(l) Question: How much must it dry up?
(m) Answer (Rav Papa): In order that it can be crushed with a fingernail.
1. Suggestion: This is like R. Yosi ben ha'Meshulam.
i. (Beraisa): A dried ear is a blemish if it would not bleed when punctured;
ii. R. Yosi ben ha'Meshulam says, it is a blemish if it can be crushed with a fingernail.
2. Rejection: No, it is even like Chachamim.
i. The ear is exposed to wind, therefore it will not heal; the lung can heal.
(n) (Rava): If the lung has black or colored crusts - it is Kosher.
(o) (Ameimar): If a punctured blister is found in the lung, we do not compare it to a fresh blister (to determine whether it was there from before the slaughter).
(p) (Rava): If a scab is found between two non-adjacent chambers of the lungs, it does not help to check (even if no puncture is found, the animal is Tereifah);
1. If it is between two adjacent chambers, it will heal, it is Kosher.

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