Chulin 55 - DOES 'UNTIL' MEAN 'INCLUDING'? (cont.)
1) DOES 'UNTIL' MEAN 'INCLUDING'? (cont.)
(a) (Mishnah): If a small earthenware vessel, its bottom or walls (if it broke) can stand unsupported, it is Mekabel Tum'ah if it holds enough oil to anoint a baby's toe;
1. This is the Shi'ur (of a shard) if the Kli initially held until a Log (before it broke.)
i. Suggestion: If it was exactly one Log, this is like less than a Log.
ii. Rejection: No, this is like more than a Log.
2. (Mishnah): If the Kli was initially from one Log until a Se'ah, the shard must hold a Revi'is.
i. Suggestion: If it was exactly one Se'ah, this is like less than a Se'ah.
ii. Rejection: No, it is like more than a Se'ah.
3. (Mishnah): If the vessel was from one Se'ah until two Sa'im, the shard must hold a half-Log.
i. Suggestion: If it was exactly two Sa'im, this is like less than two Sa'im.
ii. Rejection: No, this is like more than two Sa'im.
4. Question (Beraisa): A Log is like less than a Log; a Se'ah is like less than a Se'ah; two Sa'im is like less than two Sa'im.
5. (Retraction (of Inference 5:a:2, 54B)): 'Ad' is always understood in the more stringent way (including or excluding.)
i. (R. Avahu): Whenever Chachamim gave a Shi'ur, we are always stringent about the exact amount, except for a blood stain the size of a bean, we are lenient about this.
ii. Support (Beraisa): Five (Tefachim sticking out from the bed) is like more than five; 10 is like less than 10.
2) A PUNCTURED SPLEEN OR KIDNEY
(a) (Mishnah): If the spleen was removed (it is Kosher.)
(b) (Rav Avira): If it was removed, it is Kosher, but if it was punctured, it is Tereifah.
(c) Question (R. Yosi bar Avin - Mishnah): If part of a fetus was cut off (and left in the womb), slaughter of the mother permits it;
1. If an animal's spleen or kidney was cut (before slaughter), it is forbidden to eat.
2. Inference: The animal itself is permitted (only the cut organ is forbidden.)
(d) Answer #1: No - even the animal is Tereifah;
1. The Tana simply said 'forbidden' for contrast to the Reisha, which permits a cut part of the fetus.
(e) Answer #2: Cutting the spleen does not make the animal Tereifah, but puncturing it does.
(f) (Mishnah): If the kidneys were removed (it is Kosher.)
(g) (Rakish bar Papa): If a kidney was stricken, it is Tereifah.
(h) (Chachamim of Eretz Yisrael): This is only if the afflicted area extends to the groove.
(i) Question: Where is the groove?
(j) Answer: The white part under the hips (the middle of the kidney.)
(k) (R. Nechunyah): The Halachah follows Rakish bar Papa; it does not follow Rav Avira.
1. The Halachah does not follow Rav Avira only regarding the bottom of the spleen, but if the top of the spleen is punctured, it is Tereifah;
2. If the puncture does not go all the way through, and it is covered by flesh the size of a Dinar, it is Kosher.
(l) (Chachamim of Eretz Yisrael): If a defect in the lungs is (makes the animal) Tereifah, the same defect in the kidney is Kosher (not Tereifah);
1. All the more so, a defect that is Kosher in the lungs is Kosher in the kidney.
2. A puncture in the lungs is Tereifah; in the kidney, it is Kosher.
(m) Question (R. Tanchuma): But pus in the lungs is Kosher, but in the kidney, it is Tereifah! And pure water is Kosher in both places! (Tosfos - even though it has the same cause like pus, we do not learn from one Tereifah to another.)
(n) (Rav Ashi): We do not learn from one Tereifah to another - if one cuts an animal in one place, it is Tereifah, in another place, it is Kosher!
(o) Pure water is Kosher only if it is clear and not spoiled - if it is cloudy or spoiled, it is Tereifah.
(p) If the kidney shrank due to illness - if in a small animal it shrank to the size of a bean, or to the size of a grape in a large animal, it is Tereifah.
(q) (Mishnah): If the womb was removed (it is Kosher.)
1. Em, Tarpachas and Shalpuchis are all names for the womb.
3) A DRIED LUNG
(a) (Mishnah): Charusah bi'Dei Shamayim (that happened naturally) is Kosher.
(b) (Beraisa): Charusah is when the lung dried up - if it was bi'Dei Shamayim, it is Kosher; bi'Dei Adam (caused by man), it is Tereifah;
(c) R. Shimon ben Elazar says, even if it was caused by any living being.
(d) Question: Do R. Shimon's words apply to the first clause (through animals is like bi'Dei Shamayim, it is Kosher), or to the last clause (and it is Tereifah)?
(e) Answer (Beraisa): Charusah bi'Dei Adam is Tereifah; R. Shimon ben Elazar says, even through animals.
(f) Rabah bar bar Chanah found rams with dry lungs. He was told how to test whether this was bi'Dei Shamayim or bi'Dei Adam.
1. One soaks them in water for 24 hours. (In summer, a white vessel with cold water is used; in winter, a black vessel with warm water.) If they return to normal, it is Kosher; if not, it is Tereifah.
4) A FLAYED ANIMAL
(a) (Mishnah): Gludah (an animal without skin)...
(b) (Beraisa - R. Meir): Gludah is Kosher;
1. Chachamim say, it is Tereifah.
2. R. Shimon ben Elazar says, R. Meir retracted (and agreed that it is Tereifah.)
(c) Question: But R. Shimon ben Elazar says that R. Meir never argued!
1. (Beraisa - R. Shimon ben Elazar): R. Meir and Chachamim did not argue, they agree that Gludah is Tereifah; if skin the size of a Sela remains, it is Kosher.
(d) Answer (Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): The Beraisa means, R. Meir did not persist in the argument.
(e) (Beraisa): If skin the size of a Sela remains, it is Kosher.
(f) Question: Where must the skin be?
(g) Answer #1 (Shmuel): It must be along the entire spine.
1. Question: Can it be a thin strip, the entire area is like a Sela - or must the width of a Sela cover the entire spine? 2. Answer: R. Nehorai cited Shmuel to say that the width of a Sela must cover the entire spine.
(h) Answer #2 (Rabah bar bar Chanah): A Sela must cover the vertebrae and the joints.
(i) Answer #3 (R. Elazar ben Antigonus): It must cover the navel.
1. Questions (R. Yanai b'Rebbi Yishmael): What if only the skin covering the spine was removed? Only the skin over the joints? Only the skin over the navel?
2. These questions are unresolved.
(j) Answer #4 (Rav): A Sela of skin anywhere makes it Kosher, except over Beis ha'Perasos (the feet, below the knee.)
(k) Answer #5 (R. Yochanan): Even skin over the feet makes it Kosher.
(l) Question (Rav Asi): Does skin over the feet save the animal?
(m) Answer (R. Yochanan): Yes.
(n) Question (Rav Asi - Mishnah): The following skin is considered like meat - the skin on the feet (for it is soft)...
(o) Answer (R. Yochanan): That is R. Shimon's opinion, Chachamim argue:
1. (Beraisa): If one slaughters an Olah with intent Lehaktir (to burn) Chutz li'Mkomo (not on the Mizbe'ach) a k'Zayis of the skin under the tail, the Korban is Pasul, one who eats it is not Chayav Kares;
2. If he slaughtered Chutz li'Zmano (intending to burn the next day, after the allotted time), it is Pasul, one who eats it is Chayav Kares;
3. Eliezer ben Yehudah says, improper intent for any of the following takes effect:
i. Skin on the feet, on the head of a tender calf, under the tail, and 'any skin that is Tamei like the meat' (this includes skin of the womb).
4. If he intended Chutz li'Mkomo, it is Pasul, there is no Kares; Chutz li'Zmano, it is Pasul, there is Kares