Chulin 87 - WHO COVERS THE BLOOD?
1) WHO COVERS THE BLOOD?
(a) (Mishnah): If a man slaughtered and did not cover the blood; one who sees this must cover the blood.
(b) If one covered the blood and it became exposed, he need not cover it again;
1. If the wind (blew dirt and) covered it, he must cover it.
(c) (Gemara - Beraisa): "V'Shafach...v'Chisahu" - the one who spills the blood (slaughters) must cover it;
1. Question: How do we know that if he did not cover it, an onlooker is obligated?
2. Answer: "Say to Benei Yisrael" - they are all commanded.
(d) (Beraisa): "V'Shafach...v'Chisahu" - he must cover with what he spilled, i.e. his hand.
1. He may not cover with his foot, lest Mitzvos would be disgraceful in his eyes.
(e) (Beraisa): "V'Shafach...v'Chisahu" - the one who spills must cover it;
1. A case occurred, Reuven covered the blood of what Shimon slaughtered; R. Gamliel made Reuven pay Shimon 10 gold coins.
2. Question: Is this for stealing the Mitzvah, or for depriving him of the blessing?
i. From here we can learn the fine for blessing over a meal (to exempt the others, when someone else should have blessed.)
ii. Birkas ha'Mazon is only one Mitzvah, but it is four blessings.
3. Answer: We can learn from the following story.
4. A Tzeduki (heretic): Different powers created the mountains and the wind - "The One Who formed mountains, and the One Who created wind".
5. Rebbi: The end of the verse says "Hash-m Tzevakos Shemo" (He created both.)
6. The Tzeduki requested three days to respond; Rebbi fasted those three days. When Rebbi was about to end his fast, another Tzeduki informed him that the first one killed himself.
7. Rebbi invited this man to eat; he offered him 40 gold pieces if he will decline to drink the wine over which they will say Birkas ha'Mazon. (Ben Yehoyada explains this simply; Tosfos - Rebbi requested that the man not bless out loud to exempt the others; Rashi (according to Ra'ah) - he did not want the man to answer 'Amen' to the blessings, for this is like saying the blessings);
i. A Bas Kol announced that 40 gold pieces is the value of Birkas ha'Mazon; to this day, this man's family is among the important families in Rome.
2) WHEN THE MITZVAH IS FINISHED
(a) (Mishnah): If he covered the blood and it became uncovered (he is exempt.)
(b) Question (Rav Acha brei d'Rava): Why is this different than returning a lost object?
1. "Hashev" - even 100 times.
(c) Answer (Rav Ashi): "You will cover *it*" teaches, he need cover only once.
(d) (Mishnah): If the wind covered it (he must cover it.)
(e) (Rabah bar bar Chanah): This is only if it became uncovered - if not, he is exempt.
(f) Question: The Mitzvah was Nidcheh (unable to be performed, when it was covered) - the Mitzvah should never apply again!
(g) Answer (Rav Papa): This teaches that Dichuy does not apply to Mitzvos.
(h) Question: Why is this different than if the blood was absorbed into the ground?
1. (Beraisa): If the blood was absorbed into the ground, one must cover it.
(i) Answer: That is when one can see a discoloration where the blood was absorbed.
3) A MIXTURE OF BLOOD
(a) (Mishnah): If the blood became mixed with water, if it still looks like blood, it must be covered;
1. If blood was mixed with wine, we view the wine as if it was the same amount of water (and apply the previous law);
2. If it was mixed with blood (exempt from Kisuy, e.g.) of a Behemah or of a Chayah that was not slaughtered, we view the (exempt blood) as if it was the same amount of water;
3. R. Yehudah says, blood does not Mevatel (nullify) blood.
(b) If blood spurted afar, or is on the knife, it must be covered;
(c) R. Yehudah says, one need not cover it if there is other blood (that can be covered.)
(d) (Gemara - Mishnah): If blood (of a Korban) became mixed with water, if it has the appearance of blood, it may be thrown on the Mizbe'ach;
1. If it was mixed with wine, we view the wine as if it was the same amount of water;
2. If it was mixed with Chulin blood, we view the Chulin blood as if it was the same amount of water;
3. R. Yehudah says, blood does not Mevatel blood.
(e) (R. Chiya bar Aba): This is only if the water fell into the blood, but if blood fell into water, each drop becomes Batul when it falls in.
(f) (Rav Papa): This does not apply to Kisuy ha'Dam - Dichuy does not apply to Mitzvos. (Once enough blood falls in to have the appearance of blood, one must cover it.)
4) THE REQUIRED APPEARANCE OF BLOOD
(a) (Rav Yehudah): If it looks at all red, it is considered blood for atonement (on the Mizbe'ach), to Machshir food (to receive Tum'ah), and for Kisuy.
(b) Question: Mishnayos explicitly teach this regarding atonement and Kisuy!
(c) Answer: His Chidush is regarding Hechsher.
(d) Question: Clearly, diluted blood is Machshir!
1. If it is considered blood, blood is Machshir; if it is considered water, water is Machshir!
(e) Answer #1: The case is, it was diluted with rainwater (which is not Machshir unless one wanted it.)
1. Question: By mixing the rainwater with the blood, he shows that he wants it, so it is Machshir!
2. Answer: The case is, the rainwater fell in the blood by itself.
(f) Answer #2 (Rav Asi of Neharvil): Rav Yehudah discusses the fluid which remains when blood congeals.
(g) (R. Yirmeyah of Difti): If one eats (a k'Zayis of) such blood fluid he is Chayav Kares.
1. That is only if it came from a k'Zayis of proper blood. (Tosfos ha'Rosh - it is possible that the fluid has a greater volume than the blood it came from.)
(h) (Beraisa): (A Revi'is of) such blood conveys Tum'ah in a tent.
1. That is only if it came from a Revi'is of proper blood.