Zevachim 57 - PLACING THE BLOOD ABOVE THE
1) PLACING THE BLOOD ABOVE THE "YESOD"
(a) Question: What is the source to require the Yesod?
(b) Answer (R. Elazar): We learn from a Gezerah Shavah "Zerikah-Zerikah" from Olah.
(c) Question: What is the source that Olah requires the Yesod?
(d) Answer: "El Yesod Mizbach ha'Olah" - this teaches that Olah requires Yesod.
(e) Suggestion: Just as Olah requires two Matanos that are like four, also Bechor, Ma'aser and Pesach!
(f) Rejection (Abaye) Question: The Torah did not need to say Saviv regarding Chatas and Olah (we could have learned one from the other) - therefore, these are Shnei Kesuvim, they do not teach about other laws.
(g) Question: According to the opinion that Shnei Kesuvim do teach about other laws, how can we answer?
(h) Answer: It also says Saviv regarding Asham, all agree that Shalsoh Kesuvim do not teach about other laws.
2) "BECHOR" IS EATEN BY KOHANIM
(a) (Mishnah): Bechor is eaten by Kohanim.
(b) (Beraisa) Question: What is the source of this?
(c) Answer: "U'Vsaram Yihyeh Lach ka'Chaze ha'Tenufah uch'Shok ha'Yamin" - this equates Bechor with Chazeh v'Shok of Shelamim;
1. Just as (all parts of) Shelamim are eaten for two days and a night, also Bechor.
(d) This question was asked in Kerem b'Yavneh; R. Tarfon answered, Bechor is eaten for two days and a night.
1. R. Yosi ha'Galili: What is your source?
2. R. Tarfon: It is Kodshim Kalim, just like Shelamim - just as Shelamim is eaten for two days and a night, also Bechor.
3. R. Yosi ha'Galili: Kohanim receive Bechor, just like they receive the meat of Chatas and Asham - just as those are eaten for one day and a night, we should say the same for Bechor!
4. R. Tarfon: We learn from what is more similar - Bechor is not brought on account of sin, similar to Shelamim.
5. R. Yosi ha'Galili: It is more similar to Chatas and Asham, they are not brought voluntarily, just like Bechor!
6. R. Tarfon had no further arguments.
7. R. Akiva: "U'Vsaram Yihyeh Lach" - this equates Bechor with Chazeh v'Shok of Shelamim;
i. Just as Shelamim is eaten for two days and a night, also Bechor.
8. R. Yosi ha'Galili: We should (expound stringently, and) equate Bechor with Chazeh v'Shok of Todah, which is eaten for one day and a night!
9. R. Akiva: (Indeed, we should equate to Todah - however,) "U'Vsaram Yihyeh Lach...*Lecha Yihyeh*" is extra, to give more (privileges) to the Kohen, i.e. he may eat it for two days and a night like Shelamim.
10. R. Yishmael: R. Akiva erred - Todah was learned from a Hekesh to Shelamim, it cannot teach through another Hekesh!
i. What he first said was right, we equate Bechor with Shelamim.
11. Question: How does R. Yishmael expound "Lecha Yihyeh"?
12. Answer: It teaches that even a (Bechor) Ba'al Mum is given to a Kohen - we do not find anything like this (that Matanos Kehunah of Kedushah are given even when they cannot become Kodesh).
i. R. Akiva learns this from "U'Vsaram" (plural) - whether Tam or Ba'al Mum.
ii. R. Yishmael says, the plural refers to Bechoros of cattle, sheep and goats (mentioned in the verse).
3) SOMETHING LEARNED FROM A "HEKESH" AND ANOTHER SOURCE
(a) Question: What do they argue about?
(b) Answer: They argue whether or not something learned partially from a Hekesh (e.g. the Torah explicitly teaches that Todah is eaten for one day and a night, but we only know that Chazeh v'Shok are given to the Kohen through a Hekesh to Shelamim) is considered to be learned from a Hekesh:
1. R. Yishmael holds that it is (like a Hekesh), therefore, it cannot teach through another Hekesh;
2. R. Akiva holds that it is not, therefore, it can teach through another Hekesh.
(c) Question: According to R. Akiva, we understand the following:
1. "V'Chen Ya'aseh l'Ohel Mo'ed" - just as the blood of the Par (of Yom Kipur) is sprinkled in the Kodesh ha'Kodoshim once up and seven times down, also in the Heichal (towards the Paroches);
2. Similarly, the sprinklings of the blood of the Sa'ir in the Heichal are (one and seven,) like its sprinklings in the Kodesh ha'Kodoshim. (Some of the Avodos are written regarding the Par, others are written regarding the Sa'ir, we learn each from the other; according to R. Akiva, this is not considered learning from a Hekesh.)
3. But according to R. Yishmael, it is as if each is learned from a Hekesh, it cannot teach (from the Kodesh ha'Kodoshim to the Heichal) through a Hekesh!
(d) Answer #1: R. Yishmael does not learn from the Par to the Sa'ir (or vice-versa), he learns from the Kodesh ha'Kodoshim to the Heichal (that the Avodos in the two places are the same).
(e) Answer #2: We learn all outer Matanos (i.e. of the Heichal) from those inside the Kodesh ha'Kodoshim. (Rashi - since we can learn from what is explicitly written inside, we also learn from what is known from a Hekesh; Ri - we learn directly from the Par (inside) to the Par *and* Sa'ir outside (and likewise, from the Sa'ir inside); R. Chananel - we learn that all the Matanos are the same inside and outside).
(f) Question: According to R. Akiva, something learned partially from a Hekesh is not considered a Hekesh, we understand the following:
1. "Mi'Moshvoseichem *Tavi'u* Lechem Tenufah" - this teaches that whenever (else) we bring Chametz in the Mikdash (i.e. with a Todah), the loaves are the same size as here (Shtei ha'Lechem, an Isaron each).
2. Suggestion: We should say that the sum total of flour used (for all 10 Chametz loaves brought with Todah) is the same as for Shtei ha'Lechem, i.e. two Esronim!
3. Rejection: "Tihyenah" (only Shtei ha'Lechem is (only) two Esronim; alternatively, the extra 'Yud' teaches that elsewhere (Todah), a total of 10 Esronim are brought).
4. Question: We have learned that 10 Esronim are used for the Chametz - what is the source that 10 Esronim are used for Matzah?
5. Answer: "Al Chalos Lechem Chametz" - we use the same amount for Matzah as for Chametz. (The quantity for Chametz was learned from a Hekesh to Shtei ha'Lechem and something else ("Tihyenah"), therefore it can teach via a Hekesh).
6. Summation of question: According to R. Yishmael, it is as if we learned Chametz from a Hekesh, it cannot teach through a Hekesh!
(g) Answer: "Tavi'u" is not a Hekesh, it is a Ribuy (that two Chametz loaves of Todah are the same size as Shtei ha'Lechem), therefore Chametz can teach through a Hekesh.
4) THE "PESACH" IS EATEN UNTIL MIDNIGHT
(a) (Mishnah): Pesach is only eaten...(until midnight).
(b) Question: Who is the Tana of the Mishnah?
(c) Answer (Rav Yosef): It is R. Elazar ben Azaryah.
1. (Beraisa - R. Elazar ben Azaryah): It says that Pesach is eaten "Ba'Laylah ha'Zeh", like it says regarding Makas Bechoros - just as that was at midnight, also Pesach may be eaten until midnight.
2. R. Akiva: (Beraisa - But it says that Pesach is eaten "B'Chipazon" (in haste), i.e. until Yisrael were rushed out of Mitzrayim (in the morning)!
i. Question: If so, why does it say "Ba'Laylah ha'Zeh"?
ii. Answer: One might have thought, Pesach may be eaten during the day it is offered, like all other Korbanos (that are eaten) - "Ba'Laylah ha'Zeh" teaches that it may not be eaten until night.
(d) Question (Abaye): There is no need to say that it is R. Elazar, and that mid'Oraisa it is eaten until midnight - perhaps it is R. Akiva, Chachamim decreed not to eat it past midnight, lest one eat it after Amud ha'Shachar (like they decreed about all Korbanos eaten until morning)!
(e) Answer (Rav Yosef): The Mishnah says 'Ela' (only), just like it says regarding the other laws of Pesach, to teach that this is also mid'Oraisa.